View Exodus 14 in the note window.
- The extreme distress that Israel was in at the Red - sea.
- Notice given of it to Moses before, ver. 1 - 4.
- The cause of it was Pharaoh's pursuit of them, ver. 5 - 9.
- Israel was in a consternation upon it, ver. 10 - 12.
- Moses endeavours to encourage them, ver. 13, 14.
- The wonderful deliverance that God wrought for them.
- Moses is instructed concerning it, ver. 15 - 18.
- Lines that could not be forced are set between the camp of
Israel and Pharaoh's camp, ver. 19, 20.
- By the divine power the Red - sea is divided, ver. 21.
and is made,
- A lane to the Israelites, who marched safely through it,
ver. 22 - 29.
- To the Egyptians it was made,
- An ambush into which they were drawn, ver. 23 - 25. And,
- A grave in which they were all buried, ver. 26 - 28.
- The impressions this made upon the Israelites, ver. 30, 31.
2: They were got to the edge of the wilderness, (Ex 13:20), and
one stage or two would have brought them to Horeb, the place appointed
for their serving God, but instead of going forward, they are ordered to
turn short off, on the right - hand from Canaan, and to march towards
the Red - sea. When they were at Etham, there was no sea in their way to
obstruct their passage; but God himself orders them into straits, which
might give them an assurance, that when his purposes were served, he would
bring them out of those straits. Before Pi - hahiroth - Or the straits
of Hiroth, two great mountains, between which they marched. Migdol
and Baal - zephon were cities of Egypt and probably garrison'd.
3: They are entangled - Inclosed with mountains, and garrisons, and
5: And it was told the king that the people fled - He either forgot,
or would not own that they had departed with his consent; and therefore was
willing it should be represented to him as a revolt from their allegiance.
7: Captains over every one of them - Or rather over all of them;
distributing the command of them to his several Captains.
8: With an high hand - Boldly, resolutely.
9: Chariots and horsemen - It should seem he took no foot with him,
because the king's business required haste.
10: They were sore afraid - They knew the strength of the enemy, and
their own weakness; numerous indeed they were, but all foot, unarmed,
undisciplined, dispirited, by long servitude, and now pent up, so that they
could not escape. On one hand was Pi - hahiroth, a range of craggy rocks
unpassable; on the other hand were Migdol and Baal - zephon, forts
upon the frontiers of Egypt; before them was the sea, behind them were
the Egyptians; so that there was no way open for them but upwards,
and thence their deliverance came.
13: Moses answered not these fools according to their folly:
Instead of chiding he comforts them, and with an admirable pretence of mind,
not disheartened either by the threatenings of Egypt, or the tremblings
of Israel, stills their murmuring, Fear ye not, It is our duty,
when we cannot get out of our troubles, yet to get above our fears, so that
they may only serve to quicken our prayers and endeavours, but may not
prevail to silence our faith and hope. Stand still, and think not to
save yourselves either by fighting or flying; wait God's orders, and
observe them; Compose yourselves, by an entire confidence in God, into a
peaceful prospect of the great salvation God is now about to work for
you. Hold your peace, you need not so much as give a shout against
the enemy: the work shall be done without any concurrence of yours. In
times of great difficulty, it is our wisdom to keep our spirits calm, quiet,
and sedate, for then we are in the best frame both to do our own work, and
to consider the work of God.
15: Wherefore criest thou unto me - Moses though he was assured
of a good issue, yet did not neglect prayer. We read not of one word he
said in prayer, but he lifted up his heart to God, and God well
understood, and took notice of. Moses's silent prayer prevailed more
with God, than Israel's loud out - cries. But is God displeased with
Moses for praying? No, he asks this question, Wherefore criest thou
unto me? Wherefore shouldst thou press thy petition any farther, when
it is already granted? Moses has something else to do besides praying,
he is to command the hosts of Israel. Speak to them that they go
forward - Some think Moses had prayed not so much for their
deliverance, he was assured of that; as for the pardon of their murmurings,
and God's ordering them to go forward, was an intimation of the pardon.
Moses bid them stand still and expect orders from God: and now
orders are given. They thought they must have been directed either
to the right hand, or to the left; no, saith God, speak to them to go
forward, directly to the sea - side; as if there had lain a fleet of
transport ships ready for them to embark in. Let the children of Israel
go as far as they can upon dry ground, and then God will divide the sea.
The same power could have congealed the waters for them to pass
over, but infinite wisdom chose rather to divide the waters for them
to pass through, for that way of salvation is always pitched upon which
is most humbling.
19: The angel of God - Whose ministry was made use of in the pillar
of cloud and fire, went from before the camp of Israel, where they did
not now need a guide; there was no danger of missing their way through the
sea, and came behind them, where now they needed a guard, the
Egyptians being just ready to seize the hindmost of them. There
it was of use to the Israelites, not only to protect them, but to
light them through the sea; and at the same time it confounded the
Egyptians, so that they lost sight of their prey, just when they were
ready to lay hands on it. The word and providence of God have a black and
dark side towards sin and sinners, but a bright and pleasant side towards
those that are Israelites indeed.
21: We have here the history of that work of wonder which is so often
mentioned both in the Old and New Testament. An instance of God's almighty
power in dividing the sea, and opening a passage through the waters. It was
a bay, or gulf, or arm of the sea, two or three leagues over. The God of
nature has not tied himself to its laws, but when he pleases dispenseth with
them, and then the fire doth not burn, nor the water flow. They went
through the sea to the opposite shore; they walked upon dry land in
the midst of the sea; and the pillar of cloud being their rereward,
the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.
Moses and Aaron it is likely ventured first, into this untrodden
path, and then all Israel after them; and this march through the paths
of the great waters would make their march afterwards through the wilderness
less formidable. This march through the sea was in the night, and not a
moon - shine night, for it was seven days after the full moon, so that they
had no light but what they had from the pillar of fire. This made it the
more awful, but where God leads us, he will light us; while we
follow his conduct we shall not want his comforts.
23: And the Egyptians went in after them into the midst of the sea
- They thought, why might they not venture where Israel did? They were
more advantageously provided with chariots and horses, while the
Israelites were on foot.
24: The Lord - Called the angel before, looked - With indignation,
upon the Egyptians, and troubled the Egyptians - With terrible winds and
lightnings and thunders, (Ex 15:10,Ps 77:18,19). Also with
terror of mind.
25: They had driven furiously, but now they drove heavily, and
found themselves embarrassed at every step; the way grew deep, their hearts
grew sad, their wheels dropt off, and the axle - trees failed. They had been
flying upon the back of Israel as the hawk upon the dove; but now they
cried, Let us flee from the face of Israel.
26: And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea
- And give a signal to the waters to close again, as before upon the word
of command they had opened to the right and the left. He did so, and
immediately the waters returned to their place, and overwhelmed all the host
of the Egyptians. Pharaoh and his servants, that had hardened one
another in sin, now fell together, and not one escaped. An ancient
tradition saith, That Pharaoh's magicians Jannes and Jambres
perished with the rest. Now God got him honour upon Pharaoh, a rebel to
God, and a slave to his own barbarous passions; perfectly lost to humanity,
virtue, and all true honour; here be lies buried in the deep, a perpetual
monument of divine justice: here he went down to the pit, though he was the
terror of the mighty in the land of the living.
28: After them - That is, after the Israelites.
30: And Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the shore - The
Egyptians were very curious in preserving the bodies of their great men,
but here the utmost contempt is poured upon all the grandees of Egypt;
see how they lie heaps upon heaps, as dung upon the face of the earth.
31: And Israel feared the Lord, and believed the Lord and his
servant Moses - Now they were ashamed of their distrusts and murmurings;
and in the mind they were in, they would never again despair of help from
heaven; no not in the greatest straits! They would never again quarrel with
Moses; nor talk of returning to Egypt. How well were it for us, if
we were, always in as good a frame, as we are in sometimes!