SUMMARY.--A Charge to the Elders.
The Young Exhorted.
Salutations from the Brethren at Babylon.
1-4. The elders which are among you. That Peter means the
officers, not the aged persons, is shown by
Who am a fellow-elder. An elder as well as an apostle. He exhorts
them as one of themselves.
And a witness. An eye witness of what Christ suffered and of his
A partaker of the glory. An heir of the glory that shall be
revealed when Christ comes.
2. Feed the flock of God. "Tend" (Revision). The
means more than feed. See
Which is among you. The churches wherever you are.
Taking the oversight. Acting as bishops
Not of constraint. Attend to the duties cheerfully, willingly.
Not for filthy lucre. Not for sordid love of gain, but with
3. Neither as being lords. Not with an arbitrary, despotic rule.
Over God's heritage. Rather, "over the charge allotted you"
Ensamples to the flock. Instead of ruling imperiously, rather
set an example that others may follow.
4. And when the chief Shepherd. Christ, to whom all the
under shepherds shall give account.
Shall receive the crown of glory. The eternal reward of faithful
5-7. Likewise, ye younger. Some scholars think that all who are
not elders are meant. Among the Greeks "younger" sometimes meant those
inferior in position. Perhaps the word enforces this sense as well as
those younger in years.
Be subject unto the elder. "Elders" in the Greek. The duty
of submissiveness and humility is the thought of the passage.
Yea, all be subject to one another. The literal rendering is
"Wrap yourselves up in humility one to another." Mutual deference must
be shown, as well as mutual service.
God resisteth the proud, etc. Quoted from
6. Humble yourselves. Because "God giveth grace to the humble."
Under the mighty hand. God exalts as well as casts down. He
lifts up the humble, therefore, "Humble yourselves that he may exalt
In due time. In God's own time; not our time, but God's.
7. Casting. Simply submitting, doing the Lord's will, and
casting all care on him.
8-11. Be sober. Sobriety is necessary to vigilance.
Be vigilant. Wide awake and watchful. The reason follows. An enemy
is ready to spring upon them.
The devil, as a roaring lion. He goeth about as the lion,
seeking for prey. The lion while hunting only roars when it springs. So
the devil is stealthy and does not give warning of his approach.
9. Whom resist. See
When the devil is resisted he flees.
Stedfast. Firm in the faith.
Knowing that the same sufferings, etc. That your sufferings are
not unusual, but that the brethren everywhere suffer as you do.
10. And the God of all grace. Who bestows all grace.
Who called you. God is always spoken of as the author of the
A little while. You may be called to suffer for a season, but it
will soon be over.
Make you perfect. He will supply every need, leave nothing
12-14. By Silvanus. Silas, the old companion of Paul. See
Acts, chapter 16.
It has been supposed that Paul, then a prisoner at Rome, had sent
Silvanus to Peter.
Our faithful brother, as I suppose. This implies that Peter had
little personal acquaintance, Silvanus having been with Paul in the
work among the Gentiles.
Have written unto you. He sends this letter "by Silvanus."
This is the true grace of God. The gospel which had been
preached to them.
13. She that is in Babylon. See 
Revision. The word church is not in the Greek. Peter probably
referred to his wife. The salutations are from individuals.
Babylon. See remarks in
Alford says, "There is no reason whatever for regarding this any place
but the Chaldean capital."
So doth Mark, my son. Most likely John Mark, the author of the
second gospel. See
Acts 12:12; 13:5; 15:37;
14. Salute one another with a kiss of love. See notes on
1 Cor. 16:20.