SUMMARY.--Duties of Christian Life.
The Former State of Christians.
How God Saved Us.
The Bath of Regeneration.
The Treatment of Heretics.
1, 2. Be subject to principalities and powers. To the
authorities over them. The Cretans were subjected to Roman sway
B. C. 67, but had always been turbulent and impatient. Christians
should keep aloof from seditions which could only work evil.
2. Gentle. Forbearing and patient.
3-7. For we ourselves. We Christians.
Were sometimes. Once we were just as foolish, disobedient,
turbulent and sinful as others.
4. But after that. That we are not so now is due, not to 
ourselves, but to the love of God shown in the gospel.
5. He saved us. Not by our righteousness, but by his mercy. The
means chosen by his mercy to place us in the state of salvation are
next spoken of.
By the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost.
Two elements enter into the saving; these are referred to in
as the birth of water and of the Spirit. God's spirit effects the
renewal of the spirit of man by bringing him to faith and repentance
through the preaching of the gospel; thus the renewal of the Holy
Spirit is begun, and the gift of the Holy Spirit is promised as a
sequence of baptism.
shows that the sinner dies to sin, is buried by baptism, rises to a new
life, and is a new creature.
Washing of regeneration. Literally, "Bath of regeneration." All
commentators of reputation refer this to baptism, such as Meyer,
Olshausen, Lange, Plumptree, Schaff, Canon Cook, Wesley, etc.
Regeneration is due to the Holy Spirit, but baptism is an outward act
that God requires to complete the fact. The term "regeneration" only
occurs here and in
6. Which. The Holy Spirit.
Shed on us abundantly. On the church. On some even in miraculous
7. That being justified. Our sins all forgiven, that through
God's grace, we might be accepted as his children.
8, 9. This is a faithful saying. What has been said in the last
last four verses.
Affirm confidently. That they are saved by the gospel, and hence
must live holy lives.
Maintain good works. Active in good deeds.
9. But avoid foolish questions. How often this admonition!
Genealogies. See note on
1 Tim. 1:4.
Strivings about the law. Disputes over points connected with
the Jewish law.
10, 11. An heretic. A divider, or schismatic. Any one who
preaches doctrines which divide the household of faith is a heretic. So
is any schismatic or factious man.
Reject. First admonish and warn, repeat it, and if there is no
change, then refuse his fellowship.
11. Knowing, etc. No one can continue factious unless he is
perverted from the truth. This is the only passage in the New Testament
where "heretic" occurs, though "heresy" is
12-15. When I shall send. Titus was not stationed permanently in
Crete, as a diocesan bishop, but was left for a certain work
and is now bidden to leave as soon as another is sent to take his
Artemas. Otherwise unknown.
Tychicus. Often named as one of Paul's companions. See notes on
Come unto me to Nicopolis. A town on the west coast of Greece in
Epirus, so named because Augustus Cæsar gained the great battle of
Actium there. It means, "City of Victory." History seems to make it
probable that Paul did go there to winter, was again arrested, and
carried to 
Rome to die.
13. Bring Zenas the lawyer. Of him nothing more is known.
And Apollos. See
It was the custom of the churches to help the early evangelists forward
on their journeys.
14. Let ours. Our fellow-Christians. This suggests that it would
be a good work to aid Zenas and Apollos.