SUMMARY.--Why Titus was Left.
The Qualifications of Elders.
False Teachers who Must be Stopped.
The Character of Cretans.
Condition of the Cretan Church.
1-4. A servant of God. Paul usually calls himself a "servant
uses the form here.
According to. His apostleship looked to the promotion of the
faith of God's elect.
And acknowledging of the truth. Bringing men to acknowledge the
2. In hope of eternal life. All his work as an apostle was in
3. Manifested. God has manifested the eternal life promised by
his word in the gospel.
4. To Titus, mine own son. Concerning Titus, see
The language here shows that he was one of Paul's converts.
5, 6. For this cause left I thee. Paul had then been in Crete,
attended by Titus, and had left him there to set the churches in order.
In Crete. See
The things that are wanting. Not only in organization, but in
instruction and practice.
Ordain. "Appoint," in the Revision. The mode of appointing is
not here indicated.
Elders. See notes on
1 Tim. 3:1-6.
In every city. A plurality were to be appointed wherever there
6. If any be blameless. The 
appointment is conditioned on finding the right kind of men. For a
discussion of the qualifications, see notes on
1 Tim. 3:1-6.
7-9. For a bishop. An elder and bishop were then different names
for the same office. See notes on parallel passage in
Must be. Unless he has these traits he must not be appointed.
Blameless. No charge against him. Compare
1 Tim. 3:2, 3.
8. A lover of hospitality. See note on
1 Tim. 3:2.
9. Holding fast the faithful word. Sound in the gospel doctrine,
and able to teach it to others, as well as to refute opposers.
10-13. There are many unruly and vain talkers. The last sentence
suggests to Paul to speak of the Cretan errorists. The allusions to the
false teachers show that the Epistle belongs to the closing years of
the apostle's life.
Of the circumcision. Jews, perhaps Judaizing Christians who had
so troubled the Gentile churches. See the Galatian letter.
11. Whose mouths must be stopped. Muzzled. The way to stop them
is for the churches to refuse to hear them. All false teachers, or bad
men, should now be stopped from preaching in the same way.
Subvert whole houses. Subvert their faith.
For filthy lucre's sake. For base gain.
12. One of themselves. Of the Cretans.
A prophet. A Cretan sage, seer and teacher, Epimenides by name,
who lived about 500 B. C.
The Cretans are always liars. The hard testimony of his
countrymen is quoted from a poem, now lost.
13. This witness is true. Paul's observations confirmed it. So
do many ancient writers. Cretize (Cretanize) became a slang
phrase for lying.
Wherefore. Their bad conduct must be sharply rebuked until the
gospel so transforms them that they will become sound in the faith.
14-16. Jewish fables. See note on
1 Tim. 1:4.
Commandments of men. Commandments which are only the traditions
of men, additions to God's ordinances. See
Mark 7:4, 8.
15. Unto the pure all things are pure. In the "Jewish fables"
just referred to
were rigid regulations concerning foods and purifications. Hence Paul
adds, "It is not food that makes one impure. To the pure all things
are pure. When one is unbelieving and defiled, no food can make him
pure." See notes on
1 Cor. 8:4-8.
16. They profess that they know God. These teachers of Jewish
fables and carnal ordinances profess to know and serve God, yet their
immoral lives are a denial of him.