The Crown of Thorns.
The New Charge of the Jews.
No King but Cæsar.
Crucified at Golgotha.
The Garments Parted by Lot.
The Women at the Cross.
The Mother of Jesus Committed to John.
It Is Finished.
1-16. For notes on these verses, see
Mark 15:15-22; Luke 23:20-31.
John gives a few additional features.
Behold the man! Jesus had been scourged, and then, bleeding
torn, was crowned with thorns and a purple robe thrown around him, and
led out before the people. Pilate, it is probable, hoped to arouse
Crucify him. The response was this savage cry. Pilate then
Take ye him, etc. This is his formal acquittal of the charge of
sedition and rebellion that they had made. He had committed no crime
against Roman law. Hence, if punished, it must be by their law.
We have a law. Failing in their purpose, they now fall back on
their charge of blasphemy: "He made himself the Son of God."
Whence art thou? This statement arouses the fear of Pilate. He
had never seen such calm dignity and majesty before. Could this
prisoner be divine? When Jesus is silent, Pilate reminds him that he
has power to crucify or release.
Thou couldest have no power against me, etc. Jesus breaks the
silence and at once assumes the position of Pilate's judge. He
declares that Pilate could have no power over himself unless it were
given him. Christ submitted because it was the Father's will that he
should drink the cup. Poor, helpless Pilate was not so great a sinner
as the Jews, who might have known better, who were filled with devilish
hate, who were now forcing Pilate to the crime. The words of Christ are
really words of compassion.
If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's friend.
This means that he will be accused before Cæsar's tribunal of
winking at treason. The Cæsar then on the throne was Tiberius,
dark, suspicious, cruel in character. Such a charge from the
representatives of the Jewish nation at Rome would probably prove fatal
to Pilate; would certainly end his career as a public man. The risk was
too great. He would rather sacrifice an innocent man than to sacrifice
himself. Hence he at once surrenders.
It was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth
hour. John marks the exact time when this remarkable judgment was
rendered. It was about six o'clock in the morning, on Friday, the day
of preparation for the passover. Mark says that the crucifixion began
at the third hour,
nine o'clock, as the Hebrews began to count at six. John wrote many
years later, after Jerusalem had fallen, among people who began to
count at midnight, as did all the Roman world, and he therefore used
their language and called six o'clock the sixth hour, as we do, rather
than the first hour as the Hebrews did. Christ and his apostles had
eaten the passover already. How then could it be that was the
preparation day? Amid conflicting views, I can only give what seems to
me the best solution: (1) It is certain that Christ ate a meal the
evening before in the Upper Room which was 
called a passover. (2) It is certain from
that the Jews had not eaten the passover at that time. (3) It seems
clear to me that Christ, anxious to eat this passover (see
ate it in advance of the usual time, in order that he, the true Paschal
Lamb, "Our Passover"
might be offered on the same day that the passover was eaten. The
priests hurried the trial and execution of Jesus so that they might
proceed to the preparation for the passover that evening. As the Lord's
supper was anticipatory of the suffering on the cross, so was the
Lord's last passover. The question has difficulties, but this view has
fewer than any other.
We have no king but Cæsar. They had not now. They had
rejected the divine King, had chosen Barabbas instead, for life, and
now make choice of Cæsar as their king instead of the Lord's
Anointed. To Cæsar's tender mercies they committed themselves,
and in about a generation Cæsar will trample them in the wine
press of wrath. The choice they had made sealed the fate of their city
17-30. See notes on
Mark 15:22-47; Luke 23:33-46.
I note some additional 
features given by John.
His mother's sister The mother's sister is not here named.
the parallel passage names Salome, the mother of James and John, as one
of the four women; hence, it is generally supposed that Salome was the
sister of Mary and the aunt of Jesus.
Woman, behold thy son!
In his mortal agony, Jesus does not forget his bereaved mother, but
commits her to the care of John, her nephew, it is supposed. His love
shines forth in the sufferings on the cross.
31. Because it was the preparation. For the passover. See
That sabbath was a high day. A double Sabbath, both the weekly
Sabbath and a passover Sabbath. It was usual Roman custom to leave
crucified bodies on the cross, but out of deference to their wishes
Pilate consents that the legs of the victims should be broken in order
to hasten death, so that the bodies might be taken down and buried. The
legs were crushed with a hammer like a sledge and the shock would bring
speedy death. 
34. Pierced his side. Finding him lifeless, the soldiers did not
break his legs, but to make sure of death thrust a spear into his side.
Came out blood and water. The water, with clots of blood, can be
accounted for only the previous rupture of the heart and the flow of
blood into the pericardium, or outer sack of the heart, where it
would separate very rapidly into water and clots of blood. Hence, it
seems certain that the immediate physical cause of the death of Christ
was rupture of the heart.