SUMMARY.--A Sign Demanded.
The Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
At Cæsarea Philippi.
The Elias Who Should Come.
The Confession of Peter.
The Rock on Which the Church Should Be Founded.
Christ's Death at Jerusalem Foretold.
The Rebuke of Peter.
Losing Life and Finding It.
The Coming of the Son of Man. 
1. The Pharisees and Sadducees. Compare
For description of these two sects, see note on
It is the first time the latter party is mentioned as opposed to
A sign from heaven. Some mighty, visible miracle. See
Still in Paul's time "the Jews required a sign"
(1 Cor. 1:22).
2, 3. Ye cannot discern the signs of the times. They could read the
weather, but were blind to the events (signs of the times) that showed
the fulfillment of prophecy, the end of the Jewish dispensation, and
the establishment of the Messiah's kingdom.
4. No sign shall be given unto it but the sign of the prophet
Jonah. See note on
5. The disciples were come to the other side. They crossed over
the sea to the eastern shore.
Had forgotten to take bread. They had started on a journey to
Cæsarea Philippi, partly through a wilderness country, and would
need a supply. Mark says that they had one loaf. Compare
6. Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, etc. The teaching and
influence which spreads like leaven. See
The figure of the leaven was suggested by their need of bread.
instead of Sadducees, says, "of Herod." Herod and his followers were
7, 8, 9, 10, 11. It is because we took no bread. The thoughts of
the disciples were so fixed upon their failure to supply bread that
they thought the remark about leaven contained a rebuke. The Lord
reminds them of his creative power, and how it has been put forth.
13. When Jesus came into the coasts of Cæsarea Philippi.
Mark 8:27-38; Luke 9:18-22.
This city was located near the base of Mt. Hermon, at a source of the
Jordan, and in the northeast extremity of Palestine. It was called
Cæsarea Philippi by Herod Philip, who rebuilt it in honor
of Tiberius Cæsar, and added Philippi after his own
name, to distinguish it from Cæsarea on the Mediterranean
coast. It has now about fifty houses, many ruins of columns, towers,
temples, a bridge, and a remarkable castle.
Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? The original Greek is
more specific, and means, "Who do the common people say that I am?" He
does not ask for the opinion of the scribes, Pharisees, or priests, but
of the people.
14. Some say that thou art John the Baptist. Who had been killed
by Herod a few months before. That was one popular notion regarding
him, circulating, no doubt, chiefly among those who had never seen him.
Herod Antipas entertained it
Elias. It was very generally expected that Elijah was to return
to the earth in connection with the Messiah's advent
One of the prophets. The Jews believed that at the coming of the
Messiah the prophets were to rise again.
15. But whom say ye that I am? This is the great and smaller
catechism, the one great and essential question. Christ is the one
object of the Christian's faith. We say we believe in him; but in whom
do we believe? The hour had not come for the settlement of what should
constitute the Christian confession.
16. And Peter answered. With the impetuosity and impulsiveness
that were ever manifest in him, Peter replied at once and expressed the
faith of all the apostolic band.
Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. This confession
not only sees in Jesus the promised Messiah, but in the Messiah
recognizes the divine nature. The confession of Peter is the one
Christian confession of the New Testament and of the apostolic age, and
the very foundation of the church, into which all saints are built as
living stones of the temple.
17. Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona. Happy are all lips that
make this confession, for such shall be confessed before the Father in
For flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my
Father. This holy and blessed confession no one can make from the
heart unless he is moved by the Spirit. See
1 John 4:1, 2.
18. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this
rock I will build my church. This is the first time Jesus speaks of
his church, and here, as not yet founded. Three terms are to be
noted: (1) Peter, in the Greek,
Petros, meaning a single stone;
(2) Rock, in the Greek,
Petra, which means the solid, immovable bed-rock, a great
mass like a cliff, and (3) church, Greek,
ecclesia, those "called out," the fellowship of
believers, the organized society of Christ, the kingdom of heaven on
earth. There is probably no passage in the word of God that has called
forth more discussion. The Papal church insists 
that Peter is the rock upon which Christ founded his church. The
Catholic position is based upon the fact that Peter means a stone
and the Savior's language might be rendered, "Thou art a stone, and
upon this rock I will build my church." The Catholic view is untenable, for
1. The Savior does not say, "Thou art a stone, and upon thee I will
build," etc., or "Thou art a rock, and upon this rock I will build." He
changes the word in the Greek from Petros (Peter, a stone) to
Petra, a rock, or ledge of rock--a solid bed-rock. 2. Every
saint is a stone (see
1 Pet. 2:5).
The Lord declares that Peter is one these living stones, made such by
his confession of faith, and ready to be built into the church, the
spiritual temple, formed of living stones, and built upon the rock. So
is every confessor of Christ. In order to settle what the Savior does
mean by the rock, we must consider the
18th and 19th verses
together, and keep in mind the entire figure. This figure portrays (1)
a Builder, Christ; (2) a temple to be built, composed of lively stones,
the church; (3) a foundation for that temple, the rock; (4) the gates
of an unfriendly city or power which shall seek its destruction, hell,
or more correctly, Hades, the unseen abode of the dead, the
grave; (5) a door-keeper of the church, or spiritual temple, with his
keys, Peter. Peter's place in the figure is not that of the
foundation, but that of the key-holder, or turnkey. The only
difficulty is in settling what the Lord means by the rock. Since
this rock is the foundation of the church, the central principle, the
fundamental idea, we are aided to a correct decision by the teachings
of the Word elsewhere. We learn from
1 Cor. 3:11,
"That other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus
Christ." This excludes Peter or any human platform. Christ is often
called a stone: "the stone that the builders rejected,"
"the chief corner stone,"
"the stone that is the head of the corner,"
"the spiritual rock which is Christ."
Faith in Christ held in the heart, and confessed with the lips is the
very foundation of the spiritual life and of the church. This
constituted the fundamental difference in apostolic days between
Christians and unbelievers, the church and the world. It does still. It
is the essence of the teaching of the New Testament that the platform
or foundation of the Christian society, the church, is this belief that
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God.
It is then Peter's grand confession, faith in the Spiritual Rock, the
faith that lays hold of Christ, belief that he is the Anointed of God,
the Divine Savior, that the Lord pronounces the rock upon which he will
found his church. That this view is correct is shown by a correct
understanding of the declaration,
The gates of hades shall not prevail against it. From the gates
of the city always marched forth its armies. The powers of hades
are represented by its gates. Hades is not hell
(Gehenna), but the unseen abode of the dead that holds the
departed within its gates. Just after these words the Lord talks of his
death, or entering hades. Six months later the Sanhedrim sent him to
death for making the same confession Peter had just made. See
They expected to demonstrate that the confession of his divinity which
he had made was false by sending him to hades, which they
supposed would hold him and prevail against the confession of the
ROCK. He was sent there from the cross, but the
gates of hades did not prevail, for they could not hold him, and the
living Savior, rising triumphant from the tomb, was the unanswerable
argument that his own and Peter's confession was a rock that could
never be moved. His resurrection demonstrated that he is the Rock.
Hades did not prevail.
19. I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heaven.
That is, of the church. The office of the keys is to open the doors, or
close them. On Pentecost, Peter first opened the doors and declared the
conditions of which men could have their sins forgiven, be bound or
loosed, and thus enter into the church. Seven years later at
Cæsarea he declared the same conditions to the Gentiles. While
Peter took the lead the keys were given to all the apostles, and to no
other mortal. See
Matt. 18:18, and John 20:19-28.
All that is here said to Peter is said to all the apostles.
21. From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples.
They were not strong 
enough to bear this teaching until they were convinced of his divinity.
And suffer many things. In this strange way carrying out the
true idea of the Messiah
Of the elders and chief priests and scribes. The three
constituents of the Sanhedrim.
22. Peter began to rebuke him. He could not bear the thought of
the crucifixion, and still expected Christ to become a worldly king.
23. Get thee behind me, Satan. Christ saw in the words of Peter
a suggestion not so much of his as of Satan's. It was a temptation to
shrink from the work for which he came. It was the same temptation that
called out from him the same rebuke once before
24. If any man will come after me. Compare
Mark 8:34-38, and Luke 9:23-27.
The conditions of discipleship are presented.
Let him deny himself. Let him be prepared to say "no" to many of
the strongest cravings of his nature, in the direction more
particularly of earthly ease, comfort, dignity, and glory.
Take up his cross.Luke
adds, daily; not once, but all the time. The cross is the pain
of the self-denial required in the preceding words. The cross is the
symbol of doing our duty, even at the cost of the most painful death.
And follow me. To follow Christ is to take him for our master,
our teacher, our example; to believe his doctrines, to uphold his
cause, to obey his precepts, and to do it though it leads to heaven by
the way of the cross.
25. Whosoever will save his life shall lose it. He who refuses
to deny himself, and makes saving and ministering to his present life
his chief object, shall lose his life eternally.
26. What is a man profited? etc. All the wealth, glory, pleasure
and power of earth are worthless to the dying man. If he should gain
them all and lose his own soul, he has lost all.
What shall a man give in exchange for his soul? What would a man
not give? What is there that he can give, if in life he has not
27. For the Son of man shall come. Then all shall receive their
deserts; those who lose their lives shall gain life; those who choose
the world shall lose all. As Christ begins to teach of dying on the
cross, he begins to give prominence to his coming again.
28. Shall not taste death, till they see the Son of man. The
reference is not to his final coming to judge the world, but to his
spiritual coming to establish his kingdom. This was fulfilled on the
day of Pentecost. Mark
shows the meaning by substituting, "Till they have seen the kingdom of
God come with power." The "coming of the Son of man in his kingdom"
means, therefore, the same as "the kingdom of God come with power."
Acts 1:8, and Luke 24:49.
The kingdom came with power on the day of Pentecost