16:1 The 1 Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and a
tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from
(1) The wicked who otherwise disagree with one another, agree
well together against Christ, but do what they can, Christ
is victorious, and triumphs over them.
(a) To see whether he could do that which they desired, but
their purpose was useless for they thought to find
something in him by it, in which case they might have
just occasion to reprehend him: or else distrust and
curiosity moved them to do so, for by such means also
is God said to be tempted, that is to say, provoked to
anger, as though men would strive with him.
16:3 And in the morning, [It will be] foul weather to day: for
the sky is red and lowring. O [ye] hypocrites, ye can
discern the b face of the sky; but can ye not [discern]
the signs of the times?
(b) The outward show and countenance, as it were, of all
things, is called in the Hebrew language, a face.
16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign;
and there shall no sign be given unto it, but (c) the sign
of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.
(c) The article shows how notable the sign is.
16:52 And when his disciples were come to the other side,
they had forgotten to take bread.
(2) False teachers must be taken warning of.
16:8 [Which] when Jesus d perceived, he said unto them, O ye
of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves, because ye
have brought no bread?
(d) Not by others, but by virtue of his divinity.
16:9 Do ye not yet understand, neither remember the e five
loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took
(e) That five thousand men were filled with so many loaves?
16:11 How is it that ye do not f understand that I g spake
[it] not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of
the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees?
(f) A demand or question joined with wonder.
(g) "Spake" for commanded.
16:133 When Jesus came into the coasts of h Caesarea
Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say
that I the Son of man am?
(3) There are many judgments and opinions of Christ,
nevertheless he is known by his followers alone.
(h) There were two Caesareas, the one called Stratonis upon
the Mediterranean Sea, which Herod built extravagantly
in the honour of Octavius; Josephus lib. 15. The other
was Caesarea Philippi, which Herod the great the
Tetrarch's son by Cleopatra, built in the honour of
Tiberius at the foot of Lebanon; Josephus lib. 15.
16:14 And they said, Some [say that thou art] i John the
Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the
(i) As Herod thought.
16:174 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art
thou, Simon Barjona: for k flesh and blood hath not
revealed [it] unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.
(4) Faith is of grace, not of nature.
(k) By this kind of speech is meant man's natural
procreation upon the earth, the one who was made, not
being destroyed, but deformed through sin: So then this
is the meaning: this was not revealed to you by any
understanding of man, but God showed it to you from
16:185 And I say also unto thee, That thou art l Peter, and
upon this rock I will build my church; and the m gates
of hell shall not prevail against it.
(5) That is true faith, which confesses Christ, the virtue of
which is invincible.
(l) Christ spoke in the Syrian tongue, and therefore did
not use this discourse to distinguish between Petros,
which signifies Peter, and Petra, which signifies a
rock, but in both places used the word Cephas: but his
meaning is what is written in Greek, in which the
different word endings distinguish between Peter, who
is a piece of the building, and Christ the Petra, that
is, the rock and foundation: or else he named him Peter
because of the confession of his faith, which is the
Church's as well as his, as the old fathers witness,
for so says Theophylact. That confession which you have
made, shall be the foundation of the believers.
(m) The enemies of the Church are compared to a strong
kingdom, and therefore by "gates" are meant cities
which are made strong with wise preparation and
fortifications, and this is the meaning: whatever Satan
can do by cunning or strength. So does Paul, calling
them strongholds; (2Co 10:4).
16:196 And I will give unto thee the n keys of the kingdom
of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt o bind on earth
shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose
on earth shall be loosed in heaven.
(6) The authority of the Church is from God.
(n) A metaphor taken from stewards who carry the keys: and
here is set forth the power of the ministers of the
word, as (Isa 22:22) says, and that power is common to
all ministers, as (Mt 18:18) says, and therefore the
ministry of the gospel may rightly be called the key
of the kingdom of heaven.
(o) They are bound whose sins are retained; heaven is shut
against them, because they do not receive Christ by
faith: on the other hand, how happy are they to whom
heaven is open, who embrace Christ and are delivered
by him, and become fellow heirs with him!
16:207 Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no
man that he was Jesus the Christ.
(7) Men must first learn, and then teach.
16:218 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his
disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer
many things of the p elders and chief priests and
scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
(8) The minds of men are at this time to be prepared and made
ready against the stumbling block of persecution.
(p) It was a name of dignity and not of age: and it is used
for those who were the judges, whom the Hebrews call
16:22 Then Peter q took him, and began to rebuke him, saying,
Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee.
(q) Took him by the hand and led him aside, as they used
to do, which meant to talk familiarly with one.
16:239 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind
me, r Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou s
savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be
(9) Against a preposterous zeal.
(r) The Hebrews call him Satan, that is to say an adversary,
whom the Greeks call diabolos, that is to say,
slanderer, or tempter: but it is spoken of them, that
either of malice, as Judas, (Joh 6:70), or of
lightness and pride resist the will of God.
(s) By this word we are taught that Peter sinned through a
false persuasion of himself.
16:2410 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any [man] will
come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his
cross, and follow me.
(10) No men do more harm to themselves, than they that love
themselves more than God.
16:25 For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and
whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall t find
(t) Shall gain himself: And this is his meaning, they that
deny Christ to save themselves, not only not gain
that which they look for, but also lose the thing they
would have kept, that is, themselves, which is the
greatest loss of all: but as for them that doubt not
to die for Christ, it goes well with them otherwise.
16:27 For the Son of man shall come u in the glory of his
Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man
according to his works.