11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, [even] I, a
stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
(a) The angel assures Daniel that God has given him power
to perform these things, seeing that he appointed him
to assist Darius when he overcame the Chaldeans.
11:2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall
stand up yet b three kings in Persia; and the fourth
shall be far richer than [they] all: and by his strength
through his riches he shall stir up c all against the
realm of Grecia.
(b) Of which Cambyses that now reigned was the first, the
second Smerdes, the third Darius the son of Hystaspis,
and the fourth Xerxes, who all were enemies to the
people of God, and stood against them.
(c) For he raised up all the east countries to fight
against the Grecians, and even though he had in his
army 900,000 men, yet in four battles he was defeated,
and fled away with shame.
11:3 And a d mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with
great dominion, and do according to his will.
(d) That is, Alexander the Great.
11:4 And when he shall stand up, e his kingdom shall be
broken, f and shall be divided toward the g four winds
of heaven; and not to his h posterity, nor according to
i his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be
plucked up, even for others beside k those.
(e) For when his estate was most flourishing, he overcame
himself with drink, and so fell into a disease: or as
some write, was poisoned by Cassander.
(f) For his twelve chief princes first divided his kingdom
(g) After this his monarchy was divided into four: for
Seleucus had Syria, Antigonus had Asia minor, Cassander
had the kingdom of Macedonia, and Ptolemeus had Egypt.
(h) Thus God avenged Alexander's ambition and cruelty, in
causing his posterity to be murdered, partly by their
father's chief friends, and partly by one another.
(i) None of these four will be able to be compared to the
power of Alexander.
(k) That is, his posterity having no part of it.
11:5 And the l king of the south shall be strong, and [one] of
m his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have
dominion; his dominion [shall be] a great dominion.
(l) That is, Ptolemeus king of Egypt.
(m) That is, Antiochus the son of Seleucus, and one of
Alexander's princes will be more mighty: for he would
have both Asia and Syria.
11:6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves
together; for the king's n daughter of the south shall
come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she
shall not retain the power of the o arm; neither shall
p he stand, nor his q arm: but she shall be given up,
and they that brought her, and he r that begat her, and
he that strengthened her in [these] times.
(n) That is, Bernice the daughter of Ptolemais Philadelphus
will be given in marriage to Antiochus Theos, thinking
by this affinity that Syria and Egypt would have a
continual peace together.
(o) That power and strength will not continue: for soon
after her husband's death, Bernice and her young son
were slain by her stepson Seleicus Calinieus the son of
Laodice, the lawful wife of Antiochus, but put away for
this woman's sake.
(p) Neither Ptolemais nor Antiochus.
(q) Some read "seed", meaning the child begotten by
(r) Some read, "she that begat her", and by this understand
her nurse, who brought her up: so that all those who
were part of this marriage were destroyed.
11:7 But out of a branch of her s roots shall [one] stand up
in his estate, t which shall come with an army, and shall
enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall
deal against them, and shall prevail:
(s) Meaning that Ptolemais Evergetes after the death of his
father Philadelphus would succeed in the kingdom, being
of the same stock that Bernice was.
(t) To revenge the sister's death against Antiochus
Calinicus King of Syria.
11:8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with
their princes, [and] with their precious vessels of silver
and of gold; and he shall continue u [more] years than
the king of the north.
(u) For this Ptolemais reigned forty-six years.
11:10 But his x sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a
multitude of great forces: and [one] y shall certainly
come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he z
return, and be stirred up, [even] to his fortress.
(x) Meaning Seleucus and Antiochus the great, the sons of
Calinicus, will make war against Ptolemais Philopater,
the son of Philadelphus.
(y) For his older brother Seleucus died, or was slain
while the armies were preparing for war.
(z) That is, Philopater, when he will see Antiochus take
great dominions from him in Syria, and also ready to
11:11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and
shall come forth and fight with him, [even] with the king
of the north: and he shall set forth a great a
multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
(a) For Antioch had 6,000 horsemen, and 60,000 footmen.
11:13 For the king of the north b shall return, and shall set
forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall
certainly come after certain years with a great army and
with much riches.
(b) After the death of Ptolemais Philopater, who left
Ptolemais Epiphanes as his heir.
11:14 And in those times there shall c many stand up against
the king of the south: also the robbers of thy d people
shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they
(c) For not only Antaiochus came against him, but also
Philip King of Macedonia, and these two brought great
power with them.
(d) For under Onies, who falsely alleged that place of
(Isa 19:19), certain of the Jews retired with him
into Egypt to fulfil this prophecy: also the angel
shows that all these troubles which are in the Church,
are by the providence and counsel of God.
11:15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount,
and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south
shall e not withstand, neither his chosen people,
neither [shall there be any] strength to withstand.
(e) The Egyptians were not able to resist Stopas,
11:16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his
own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall
stand in the f glorious land, which by his hand shall be
(f) He shows that he will not only afflict the Egyptians,
but also the Jews, and will enter into their country,
of which he admonished them before, that they may know
that all these things came by God's providence.
11:17 He shall also g set his face to enter with the strength
of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus
shall he do: and he shall give him the h daughter of
women, corrupting i her: but k she shall not stand [on
his side], neither be for him.
(g) This was the second battle that Antiochus fought
against Ptolemais Epiphanes.
(h) That is, a beautiful woman who was Cleopatra,
(i) For he did not regard the life of his daughter in
respect of the kingdom of Egypt.
(k) She will not agree to his wicked counsel, but will
love her husband, as her duty requires, and not seek
11:18 After this shall he turn his face unto the l isles, and
shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf m shall
cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his
own reproach he shall cause [it] to turn upon n him.
(l) That is, towards Asia, Greece, and those isles which
are in the Mediterranean Sea: for the Jews called all
countries which were divided by the sea "isles".
(m) For whereas Antiochus was accustomed to condemn the
Romans, and put their ambassadors to shame in all
places, Attilius the consul, or Lucius Scipio put him
to flight, and caused his shame to turn on his own
(n) By his wicked life, and obedience to foolish counsel.
11:19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of o his own
land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be p found.
(o) For fear of the Romans he will flee to his
(p) For when as under the pretence of poverty he would
have robbed the temple of Jupiter Dodomeus, the
countrymen slew him.
11:20q Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes
[in] the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he
shall be destroyed, neither in r anger, nor in battle.
(q) That is, Seleuchus will succeed his father Antiochus.
(r) Not by foreign enemies, or battle, but by treason.
11:21 And in his estate shall stand up a s vile person, to
whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he
shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by
(s) Who was Antiochus Epiphanes, who as is thought was the
occasion of Seleucus his brother's death, and was of a
vile, cruel, and flattering nature, and defrauded his
brother's son of the kingdom, and usurped the kingdom
without the consent of the people.
11:22 And with the t arms of a flood shall they be overflown
from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince
of the u covenant.
(t) He shows that great foreign powers will come to help
the young son of Seleucus against his uncle Antiochus,
and yet will be overthrown.
(u) Meaning Ptolemais Philopater's son, who was this
child's cousin, and is here called the prince of the
covenant, because he was the chief, and all others
followed his conduct.
11:23 And after x the league [made] with him he shall work
deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong
with a y small people.
(x) For after the battle, Philometor and his uncle
Antiochus made a league.
(y) For he came upon him by surprise, and when he did not
suspect his uncle Antiochus at all.
11:24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of
the province; and he shall do [that] which his fathers z
have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter
among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: [yea], and he
shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even
for a a time.
(z) Meaning, in Egypt.
(a) He will content himself with the small strongholds for
a time, but will always labour by craft to attain to the
11:25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the
king of the south with a great army; and the king of the
south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and
mighty army; but he shall not b stand: for they shall
forecast devices against him.
(b) He will be overcome with treason.
11:26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of c his meat shall
destroy him, and his army d shall overflow: and many
shall fall down slain.
(c) Signifying his princes and the chief men about him.
(d) Declaring that his soldiers will break out and venture
their life to stay and to be slain for the safeguard
of their prince.
11:27 And both these kings' hearts [shall be] to do e
mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it
shall not prosper: for f yet the end [shall be] at the
(e) The uncle and the nephew will make truce, and banquet
together, yet in their hearts they will imagine
mischief against one another.
(f) Signifying that it depends not on the counsel of men
to bring things to pass, but on the providence of God,
who rules the kings by a secret bridle, so that they
cannot do what they themselves wish.
11:28 Then shall he return into his land with great g riches;
and his heart [shall be] against the holy covenant; and he
shall do [exploits], and return to his own land.
(g) Which he will take from the Jews in spoiling Jerusalem
and the temple, and this is told them before to exhort
them to be patient, knowing that all things are done
by God's providence.
11:30 For the ships h of Chittim shall come against him:
therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have
indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he
shall even return, i and have intelligence with them
that forsake the holy covenant.
(h) That is, the Roman power will come against him: for P.
Popilius the ambassador appointed him to depart in the
Romans' name, which he obeyed, although with grief,
and to avenge his rage he came against the people of
God the second time.
(i) With the Jews who will forsake the covenant of the
Lord: for first he was called against the Jews by
Jason the high priest, and this second time by
11:31 And arms k shall stand on his part, and they shall
pollute the sanctuary l of strength, and shall take away
the daily [sacrifice], and they shall place the
abomination that maketh desolate.
(k) A great faction of the wicked Jews will join with
(l) So called because the power of God was not at all
diminished, even though this tyrant set up in the
temple the image of Jupiter Olympius, and so began to
corrupt the pure service of God.
11:32 And such as do wickedly m against the covenant shall he
corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their
God shall be strong, and do [exploits].
(m) Meaning those who had the name of Jews, but indeed
were not Jews at all, for they sold their souls, and
betrayed their brethren for gain.
11:33 And they that understand among the n people shall
instruct many: o yet they shall fall by the sword, and
by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days.
(n) Those that remain constant among the people will teach
others by their example, and edify many in the true
(o) By which he exhorts the godly to constancy, even
though they should perish a thousand times, and even
though their miseries endure ever so long.
11:34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a p
little help: but many shall cleave to them q with
(p) As God will not leave his Church destitute, yet he will
not deliver it all at once, but help in such a way
that they may still seem to fight under the cross, as
he did in the time of the Maccabees, of which he here
(q) That is, there will even be among this small number
11:35 And [some] of them r of understanding shall fall, to try
them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to
the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time
(r) That is, of those that fear God and will lose their
life for the defence of true religion. Signifying
also that the Church must continually be tried and
purged, and ought to look for one persecution after
another: for God has appointed the time, and therefore
we must obey.
11:36 And the s king shall do according to his will; and he
shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god,
and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods,
and shall prosper till the indignation t be
accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
(s) Because the angels purpose is to show the whole course
of the persecutions of the Jews until the coming of
Christ, he now speaks of the monarchy of the Romans,
which he notes by the name of a king, who were without
religion and condemned the true God.
(t) So long the tyrants will prevail as God has appointed
to punish his people: but he shows that it is but for
11:37 Neither shall he regard the u God of his fathers, nor
the desire x of women, nor regard any god: for he shall
magnify himself above all.
(u) The Romans will observe no certain form of religion as
other nations, but will change their gods at their
pleasures, indeed, they will condemn them and prefer
themselves to their gods.
(x) Signifying that they would be without all humanity:
for the love of women is taken for singular or great
love, as (2Sa 1:26).
11:38 But in his estate shall he honour the y God of forces:
and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with
z gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and
(y) That is, the god of power and riches: they will esteem
their own power above all their gods and worship it.
(z) Under pretence of worshipping the gods, they will
enrich their city with the most precious jewels of all
the world, because by this all men would hold them in
admiration for their power and riches.
11:39 Thus shall he do in a the most strong holds with a
strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with
glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and
shall divide the land for gain.
(a) Even though in their hearts they had no religion, yet
they did acknowledge the gods, and worshipped them in
their temples, lest they should have been despised as
atheists. But this was to increase their fame and
riches, and when they gained any country, they made
others the rulers of it in such a way that the profit
always came to the Romans.
11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the b south
push at him: and the king of the north shall come against
him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen,
and with many ships; and he shall enter into the
countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
(b) That is, both the Egyptians and the Syrians will at
length fight against the Romans, but they will be
11:41 He shall enter also into the c glorious land, and many
[countries] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape
out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of
the children of Ammon.
(c) The angel forewarns the Jews that when they should see
the Romans invade them, and that the wicked would
escape their hands, that then they should think that
all this was done by God's providence, seeing that he
warned them of it so long before, and therefore he
would still preserve them.
11:44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall d
trouble him: therefore he shall go forth e with great
fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
(d) Hearing that Crassus was slain, and Antonius defeated.
(e) For Augustus overcame the Parthians, and recovered
that which Antonius had lost.
11:45 And he shall plant the tabernacles f of his palace
between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he
shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
(f) The Romans after this reigned quietly throughout all
countries, and from sea to sea, and in Judea: but at
length because of their cruelty God will destroy them.