Philippi: 1. Formerly Crenides, "the fountain," the capital of the province
of Macedonia. It stood near the head of the Sea, about 8 miles
north-west of Kavalla. It is now a ruined village, called
Philibedjik. Philip of Macedonia fortified the old Thracian town
of Crenides, and called it after his own name Philippi (B.C.
359) In the time of the Emperor Augustus this city became a
Roman colony, i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers,
there planted for the purpose of controlling the district
recently conquered. It was a "miniature Rome," under the
municipal law of Rome, and governed by military officers, called
duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome. Having been
providentially guided thither, here Paul and his companion Silas
preached the gospel and formed the first church in Europe.
This success stirred up the enmity of the people, and they were
(Acts 16:9-40; 1 Thessalonians 2:2) Paul and Silas at
length left this city and proceeded to Amphipolis (q.v.).
2. When Philip the tetrarch, the son of Herod, succeeded to the
government of the northern portion of his kingdom, he enlarged
the city of Paneas, and called it Caesarea, in honour of the
emperor. But in order to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the
sea coast, he added to it subsequently his own name, and called
it Caesarea-Philippi (q.v.).