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The anguish of Judah, the prophet much grieved, ver. 1 - 5.
By the Persians, Medes, and Assyrians, ver. 6, 7.
He reproves their human wisdom, ver. 8 - 11.
And profane joy, ver. 12, 13.
Which God would certainly punish, ver. 14.
Shebnah's deprivation for his pride, ver. 15 - 19.
Eliakim put in his place, his glory, ver. 20 - 25.
1: The valley - Of Judah; and especially of Jerusalem, called
a valley, because great part of it flood in a valley; and the valley
of vision, because of the many and clear visions or revelations of God's
mind, in that place. House - tops - As they used to do in times of great
consternation, that they might look, to and cry to heaven for help.
2: Noises - Of joyful shouts. Tumultuous - Through revelling and
jollity. Battle - But either by famine or pestilence in the siege,
or in their flight.
3: Rulers - Zedekiah and his chief commanders, whose flight he
foretells. Found - That remain there with Zedekiah in the siege; for
those who had fled to the Chaldeans saved their lives and liberties.
Bound - In fetters, (Jer 52:11).
Fled - Who fled from Jerusalem, but were pursued and overtaken by
their enemies, and bound, as others had been.
4: Look away - Take off your eyes and thoughts from me, and leave me
5: Treading down - In which my people are trodden under foot by their
enemies. By the Lord - Not only men, but God himself fought against them.
Walls - Of the strong cities of Judah. Mountains - With such loud
and dismal outcries as should reach to the neighbouring mountains.
6: Elam - The Persians, who now, and for a long time after, were
subject to the Assyrian and Chaldean emperors. Quiver - Being
expert bowmen. Horsemen - As some fought on foot, so others fought
from chariots and horses. Kir - The Medes, so called from Kir,
an eminent city and region of Media. Uncovered - Prepared it and
themselves for the battle.
7: Valleys - Valleys were the most proper places for the use of
chariots. Gate - To assist the footmen while they made their assault,
and to prevent those who endeavoured to escape.
8: He - The enemy. Covering - He took those fenced cities, which
were a covering or safe - guard both to the people of Judah, and to
Jerusalem. The armour - Thy trust was placed in the arm of flesh.
The forest - More fully called the house of the forest of Lebanon,(1Ki 7:2),
not because it was built in Lebanon, for it was in Jerusalem;
but because it was built of the trees of Lebanon.
9: Seen - That is, observed in order to the reparation of them.
The waters - That you might both deprive the enemy of water, and supply
the city with it.
10: Numbered - That they might exactly know their own strength.
The houses - Which stood upon or without the walls, and so gave their
enemies advantage, and hindered the fortifying the city.
11: Thereof - Of Jerusalem, expressed in the foregoing verse.
Him - God, who made it a city, and the place of his special presence
and worship. Long ago - Which may be added to aggravate their sin, in
distrusting that God, who had now for a long time given proof of his
care and kindness in defending this city.
12: Call - By his providence, and by his precepts requiring these
things in such times. Baldness - By plucking or shaving off the hair of
their heads, as was usual in great sorrows.
13: Let us, &c. - A most perverse and desperate conclusion.
14: 'Till ye die - You shall feel the sad effects of this, as long as
16: What - What right hast thou to this place and office?
Whom - What kindred or relations? For the Jews say, he was a stranger
by birth; which is the more probable, because his pedigree is not
mentioned in any of those places of scripture where he is named.
On high - In an high and eminent place. An habitation - He erected a
stately house to live in, and a stately sepulchre to receive him
when he died. And these two are fitly joined together, because
their sepulchres were commonly built in or near their houses.
A rock - A fit place both for strength and state.
17: Will carry - Will cause thee to be carried into captivity by a
strong hand. Cover - This may be an allusion to the ancient custom of
covering the faces of condemned persons.
18: Thy chariots - Thy glorious chariots where thou didst ride in
great state at Jerusalem, shall be turned into shame to thyself, and
to thy master.
19: He - The Lord; such sudden changes of persons being very usual in
20: Call - By my powerful providence.
21: Girdle - There was a peculiar sort of robe and girdle which was
the badge of his office. A father - He shall govern them with fatherly
care and affection.
22: The key - The government, the power of opening and shutting, of
letting men into it, or putting them out of it, whereof a key is a fit
emblem. Shoulder - He mentions the shoulder rather than the hand, in
which keys are commonly carried, from some ceremony then in use, of
carrying a key upon the shoulder of the officer of state.
23: Fasten - I will establish the power in his hands.
Sure place - In the strong walls, or solid timber, in the house.
He shall be - By his prudent and righteous government he shall
procure great glory, to all that have any relation to him.
24: The glory - Of his own kindred and family, who shall all depend
upon him, and receive glory from him; of the house of David, which is
called his father's house, because he was of the blood - royal.
The offspring - Great and small, the children and grand - children of his
father's house, the meanest of them shall receive a lustre from their
relation to him. All vessels - All sorts of vessels, great or small, mean
or precious, may be hanged upon him, without any fear of falling.
25: The nail - Shebna, who seemed to be so. The burden - All
those wicked officers that were advanced and supported by his power.