The last words of David, ver. 1 - 7.
An account of his mighty men, the first three, ver. 8 - 12.
Two of the next three, ver. 13 - 23.
And the thirty, ver. 24 - 39.
1: Last words - Not simply the last that he spoke, but the last
which he spake by the spirit of God, assisting and directing him in an
extraordinary manner. When we find death approaching, we should endeavour
both to honour God, and to profit others with our last words. Let those
who have had experience of God's goodness, and the pleasantness of the ways
of wisdom, when they come to finish their course, leave a record of those
experiences, and bear their testimony to the truth of the promise.
Raised - Advanced from an obscure estate, to the kingdom. Whom, God
singled out from all the families of Israel, and anointed to be king.
Psalmist - He who was eminent among the people of God, for composing sweet
and holy songs to the praise of God, and for the use of his church in after
ages: these seem not to be the words of David, but of the sacred penman
of this book.
2: His word - The following words, and consequently the other words
and Psalms composed and uttered by me upon the like solemn occasions,
are not to be looked upon as human inventions, but both the matter and
the words of them are suggested by God's spirit, the great teacher of the
3: Rock - He who is the strength, and defence, and protector of his
people; which he manifests by directing kings and rulers so to manage their
power as may most conduce to their comfort and benefit. Ruleth - Here are
the two principal parts of a king's duty, answerable to the two tables of
God's law, justice towards men, and piety towards God, both which he is to
maintain and promote among his people.
4: Shall be - These words are a farther description of the king's
duty, which is not only to rule with justice and piety, but also with
sweetness, and gentleness, and condescension to the infirmities of his
people; to render his government as acceptable to them, as is the sun - shine
in a clear morning, or the tender grass which springs out of the earth by
the warm beams of the sun after the rain.
5: Altho' - Although God knows, that neither I, nor my children have
lived and ruled as we should have done, so justly, and in the fear of the
Lord; and therefore have not enjoyed that uninterrupted prosperity which
we might have enjoyed. Covenant - Notwithstanding all our transgressions
whereby we have broken covenant with God, yet God, to whom all my sins were
known, was graciously pleased to make a sure covenant, to continue the
kingdom to me, and to my seed for ever, (2Sa 7:16), until the coming of
the Messiah who is to be my son and successor, and whose kingdom shall
have no end. Ordered - Ordained in all points by God's eternal counsel;
and disposed by his wise and powerful providence which will over - rule all
things, even the sins of my house so far, that although he punished them for
their sins, yet he will not utterly root them out, nor break his covenant
made with me and mine. Sure - Or, preserved, by God's power and
faithfulness in the midst of all oppositions. For this - Or, in this
is, that is, it consists in, and depends upon this covenant.
Salvation - Both mine own eternal salvation, and the preservation of the
kingdom to me and mine. Tho' - Although God as yet hath not made my house
or family to grow; that is, to increase, or to flourish with worldly glory
as I expected; yet this is my comfort, that God will inviolably keep this
covenant. But this refers also to the covenant of grace made with all
believers. This is indeed an everlasting covenant, from everlasting,
in the contrivance of it, and to everlasting, in the continuance and the
consequence of it. It is ordered, well ordered in all things;
admirably well, to advance the glory of God and the honour of the mediator,
together with the holiness and happiness of believers. It is sure, and
therefore sure, because well - ordered: the promised mercies are sure, on the
performance of the conditions. It is all our salvation: nothing but
this will save us, and this is sufficient. Therefore it should be all
our desire. Let me have an interest in this covenant, and I have
enough, I desire no more.
6: But - Having in the foregoing verses described the nature, and
stability of that kingdom which God had by a sure covenant settled upon him
and his seed; and especially, upon the Messiah, who was to be one of his
posterity; he now describes the nature and miserable condition, of all the
enemies of this holy and blessed kingdom. As thorns - Which men do not
use to handle, but thrust them away. And so will God thrust away from
himself, and from his people, and kingdom, all those who shall either
secretly or openly set themselves against it.
7: Fenced - He must arm himself with some iron weapon, whereby he
may cut them down; or, with the staff of a spear, or some such thing,
whereby he may thrust them away from himself, that they do him no hurt.
Burnt - Or, if they do not cut them down or thrust them away they will
burn and consume them. The place - Or, in their place, where they
grow or stand.
8: These - But this catalogue, though placed here, was taken long
before, as is manifest from hence, that Asahel and Uriah are named
here. And whereas there are some difference between this list, and that,(1Ch 11:10-47), most of them are easily reconciled by these two
that nothing is more common than for one person to have divers names.
That as some of the worthies died, and others came in their stead;
this must needs cause some alteration in the latter catalogue,
from this which was the former.
Learn hence, how much religion tends to inspire men with true courage.
David both by his writings and example greatly promoted piety among the
grandees of the kingdom. And when they became famous for piety, they became
famous for bravery. Adino - This was his proper name. Lift up - Which
words are fitly supplied out of (1Ch 11:11), where they are expressed.
One time - In one battle, which though it be strange, yet cannot seem
incredible, supposing him to be a person of extraordinary strength and
activity, and his enemies to be discouraged, and fleeing away.
9: Gone away - That is, fled away, (1Ch 11:13), being dismayed
at the approach of their enemies.
11: Lentiles - Or barley, as it is (1Ch 11:13). For both
might grow in the same field, in divers parts of it. And this fact is
ascribed to Eleazar, (1Ch 11:12), but it is implied, that he had
some partner or partners in it; for it is there said, (1Ch 11:14)
they set themselves, &c. So Eleazar might fight in that part where the
barley was and Shammah where the lentiles were.
12: Lord wrought - How great soever the bravery of the instruments
is, the praise of the achievement is to be given to God. These fought, but
God wrought the victory.
15: Said - Being hot and thirsty, he expresses how acceptable a
draught of that water would be to him; but was far from desiring, or
expecting that any of his men should hazard their lives to procure it.
16: Would not - Lest by gratifying himself upon such terms, he should
seem either to set too high a price upon the satisfaction of his appetite,
or too low a price upon the lives of his soldiers. Poured it - As a kind
of drink offering, and acknowledgment of God's goodness in preserving the
lives of his captains in so dangerous an enterprize; and to shew, that he
esteemed it as a sacred thing, which it was not fit for him to drink.
17: These three - Jointly: then two of them are mentioned severally.
19: Attained not - He fell short of them in strength and valour.
21: Pit - Where he put himself under a necessity, either of killing,
or being killed. Of snow - When lions are most fierce, both from the
sharpness of their appetite in cold seasons, and from want of provisions.
25: Harodite - In (1Ch 11:27),
Shammoth the Harorite. Concerning which, and other changes of the
names, which will be observed, by comparing this catalogue with that,
it will be sufficient to suggest,
that the same names of persons, or places, are differently pronounced
according to the different dialects of divers places or ages.
That one man had often two names.
That David had more worthies than those here mentioned; and as
some of these were slain in the former part of David's reign, as
Asahel was; so others came up in their stead; and some were added
to this number, as appears from (1Ch 11:10-47), where they are
named, but not numbered, as they were here; and where there is a
greater number than is here expressed.