The time when the temple was built, ver. 1.
The dimensions of it, ver. 2, 3.
The windows, chambers, materials, doors, ver. 4 - 10.
God's message to Solomon, ver. 11 - 13.
The walls and flooring, ver. 14 - 18.
The oracle and cherubim, ver. 19 - 30.
The doors and inner court, ver. 31 - 36.
How long it was building, ver. 37 - 38.
1: Four hundred and four score, &c. - Allowing forty years to
Moses, seventeen to Joshua, two hundred ninety - nine to the
Judges, forty to Eli, forty to Samuel and Saul, forty to
David, and four to Solomon before he began the work, we have just
the sum of four hundred and eighty. So long it was before that holy house
was built, which in less than four hundred and thirty years was burnt by
Nebuchadnezzar. It was thus deferred, because Israel had by their
sins, made themselves unworthy of this honour: and because God would shew
how little he values external pomp and splendor in his service. And God
ordered it now, chiefly to be a shadow of good things to come.
2: The house - Properly so called, as distinct from all the walls and
buildings which were adjoining to it; namely, the holy, and most holy place.
Length - From east, to west. And this and the other measures may seem to
belong to the inside from wall to wall. Cubits - Cubits of the
sanctuary. Height - Namely, of the house: for the porch was one
hundred and twenty cubits high, (2Ch 3:4). So that all the measures
compared each with other were harmonious. For sixty to twenty (the length to
the breadth) is triple: or as three to one: and sixty to thirty (the length
to the height) is double, or as two to one: and thirty to twenty (the height
to the breadth) is one and an half, as three to two. Which are the
proportions answering to the three great concords in music, commonly called,
a twelfth, an eighth, and a fifth. Which therefore must needs be a graceful
proportion to the eye, as that in music is graceful to the ear.
3: The porch - In the front of, or entrance into the house,(2Ch 3:4),
being a portico, a walk or gallery, at one end of the building (from
side to side.) And the measures of this were harmonious also. For twenty
to ten (the length of the portico to the breadth of it) is double, or
as two to one. And, if the height within, be the same with that of the
house, that is thirty; it will be to the length of it, as three to two;
and to its breadth, as three to one. Or, if we take in the whole height
mentioned, (2Ch 3:4), which is one hundred and twenty; there is
in this no disproportion: being to its length as six to one; and to its
breadth as twelve to one; especially when this height was conveniently
divided into several galleries, one over another, each of which had their
4: Narrow - Narrow outward, to prevent the inconveniences of the
weather; widening by degrees inward, that so the house might better receive,
and more disperse the light.
5: Against the wall - The beams of the chambers were not fastened
into the wall, but leaned upon the buttresses of the wall. Chambers - For
the laying the priests garments, and other utensils belonging to the temple,
therein. Round about - On all the sides except the east, where the porch
was; and except some very small passages for the light. And yet these
lights might be in the five uppermost cubits of the wall, which were above
all these chambers, for these were only fifteen cubits high, and the wall
was twenty cubits high. Chambers - Galleries which encompassed all the
chambers; and which were necessary for passage to them.
6: Broad - On the inside, and besides the galleries mentioned above.
Narrowed rests - Or, narrowings: as in our buildings the walls of an
house are thicker, or broader at the bottom, and narrower towards the top:
only these narrowings were in the outside of the wall, which at each of
the three stories was a cubit narrower than that beneath it. And this is
mentioned, as the reason of the differing breadth of the chambers; because
the wall being narrower, allowed more space for the upper chambers.
Not fastened - That there might be no holes made in the wall for fastening
them; and that the chambers might be removed, if occasion were, without any
inconvenience to the house.
7: Made ready - Hewed, and squared, and fitted exactly according
to the direction of the architect. Neither hammer, &c. - So it was
ordered, partly for the ease and conveniency of carriage: partly, for the
magnificence of the work, and commendation of the workmen's skill and
diligence: and partly, for mystical signification. And as this temple was
a manifest type both of Christ's church upon earth, and of the heavenly
Jerusalem: so this circumstance signified as to the former, that it is
the duty of the builders and members of the church, as far as in them lies,
to take care that all things be transacted there with perfect peace and
quietness; and that no noise of contention, or division, or violence, be
heard in that sacred building: and for the latter, that no spiritual stone,
no person, shall bear a part in that heavenly temple, unless he be first
hewed, and squared, and made meet for it in this life.
8: The door - That is, by which they entered to go up to the middle
chamber or chambers; such as were in the middle story. Right side - That
is, in the south - side, called the right side; because when a man looks
towards the east, the south is on his right hand. There was another door
on the left, or the north - side, leading to the chambers on that side.
Winding stairs - Without the wall, leading up to the gallery out of which
they went into the several chambers. Middle chamber - Or rather, into
the middle story, or row of chambers; and so in the following words,
out of the middle story: for these stair's could not lead up into each
of the chambers; nor was it needful, but only into the story, which was
sufficient for the use of all the chambers.
10: Built chambers - The Hebrew words may be properly rendered,
He built a roof, a flat and plain roof, over all the house,
according to the manner of the Israelitish buildings. The inner roof
was arched, ver.(9), that it might be the more beautiful, but the
outward roof was flat. Five cubits - Above the walls of the temple: that
it might be a little higher than the arched roof, which it was designed to
cover and secure. They rested - Heb. it rested, namely, the roof.
Timber of cedar - Which rested upon the top of the wall, as the chambers,
ver.(5), rested upon the sides of the wall.
12: If - God expresses the condition upon which his promise and
favour is suspended; and by assuring him thereof in case of obedience, he
plainly intimates the contrary upon his disobedience. Thus he was taught,
that all the charge he and the people were at, in erecting this temple,
would neither excuse them from obedience to the law of God, nor shelter
them from his judgments in case of disobedience.
15: Walls - The name of a wall is not appropriated to stone
or brick, because we read of a brazen wall, (Jer 15:20), and
a wall of iron, (Eze 4:3).
And that wall into which Saul smote his javelin, (1Sa 19:10),
seems more probably to be understood of wood, than of stone; especially,
considering that it was the room where the king used to dine. By this
periphrasis, from the floor of the house, unto the walls of the ceiling,
he designs all the side - walls of the house. Them - The side - walls of the
house. Wood - With other kind of wood, even with fir; as appears from(2Ch 3:5), wherewith the floor is here said to be covered.
Floor - This is spoken only concerning the floor, because there was
nothing but planks of fir; whereas there was both cedar and fir in the
sides of the house, the fir being either put above, or upon the cedar; or
intermixed with, or put between the boards or ribs of cedar: as may be
gathered from, (2Ch 3:5).
16: House - That is, the most holy place, which contained in length
twenty cubits, which may be said to be on the sides Of the house,
because this part took off twenty cubits in length from each side of the
house, and was also twenty cubits from side to side, so it was twenty cubits
every way. The oracle - the most holy place - The last words are added, to
explain what he means by the word oracle, which he had not used before.
17: House - That is, the holy place. Temple - This is added, to
restrain the signification of the word house, which otherwise notes the
whole building. It - The oracle.
18: Cedar - Cedar is here named, not to exclude all other wood,
but stone only; as the following words shew.
19: Prepared - That is, adorned and fitted it for the receipt of the
ark. Solomon made every thing new, but the ark. That with its mercy
seat was still the same that Moses made. This was the token of God's
presence, which is with his people, whether they meet in tent or temple,
and changes not with their condition.
20: Forepart - Which was in the inner part of the house, called
in Hebrew, the forepart; not because a man first enters there, but
because when a man is entering, or newly entered into the house, it is
still before him. Covered - With gold, (1Ki 7:48,1Ch 28:18).
The altar - The altar of incense.
21: House - Or, that house, the oracle. Partition - He made a
veil, which was a farther partition between the holy, and the most holy;
which veil did hang upon these golden chains. Before the oracle - In the
outward part of the wall, or partition, which was erected between the oracle
and the holy place; which is properly said to be before the oracle, there
the veil was hung; and there the chains or bars, or whatsoever it was which
fastened the doors of the oracle, were placed. It - The partition; which
he here distinguisheth from the house, or the main walls of the house,
which he had in the former part of this verse told us were overlaid with
gold; and now he affirms much as of the partition.
22: Whole house - Not only the oracle, but all the holy place.
The altar - the altar of incense, which was set in the holy place close by
the doors of the oracle. With gold - As before he overlaid it with cedar.
23: Cherubim - Besides those two made by Moses, (Ex 25:18),
which were of gold, and far less than these. The Heathens set up images
of their gods, and worshipped them. These were designed to represent the
servants and attendants of the God of Israel, the holy angels, not to
be worshipped themselves, but to shew how great he is whom we worship.
29: Cherubim - As signs of the presence and protection of the angels
vouch - safed by God to that place. Palm - trees - Emblems of that peace and
victory over their enemies, which the Israelites duly serving God in
that place might expect. Within and without - Within the oracle and
without it, in the holy place.
31: Fifth part - That is, four cubits in height or breadth, whereas
the wall was twenty cubits.
36: Inner court - The priests court, (2Ch 4:9), so called,
because it was next to the temple which it compassed. Cedar beams - Which
is understood, of so many galleries, one on each side of the temple, whereof
the three first were of stone, and the fourth of cedar, all supported with
rows of pillars: upon which there were many chambers for the uses of the
temple, and of the priests.
38: Seven years - It is not strange that this work took up so much
The temple properly so called, was for quantity the least part of it,
there being very many and great buildings both above ground in the
several courts, (for though only the court of the priests be mentioned,
yet it is thereby implied, that the same thing was proportionably done
in the others) and under ground.
The great art which was used here, and the small number of exquisite
artists, required the longer time for the doing it. And if the
building of Diana's temple employed all Asia for two hundred
years; and the building of one pyramid employed three hundred and
sixty thousand men, for twenty years together; both which, Pliny
affirms: no reasonable man can wonder that this temple was seven years
Now let us see what this temple typifies.
Christ himself is the true temple. He himself spoke of the temple
of his body: and in him dwelt all the fullness of the godhead.
In him all the Israel of God meet, and thro' him have access
with confidence to God.
Every believer is a living temple, in whom the spirit of God dwelleth.
We are wonderfully made by the Divine Providence, but more wonderfully
made anew by the Divine grace. And as Solomon's temple was built
on a rock, so are we built on Christ.
The church is a mystical temple, enriched and beautified, not with
gold and precious stones, but with the gifts and graces of the spirit.
Angels are ministering spirits, attending the church and all the
members of it on all sides.
Heaven is the everlasting temple. There the church will be fixt, and no
longer moveable. The cherubim there always attend upon the throne of
glory. In the temple there was no noise of axes or hammers: every
thing is quiet and serene in heaven. All that shall be stones in that
building, must here be fitted and made ready for it; must be hewn and
squared by the Divine grace, and so made meet for a place in that