SUMMARY.--A Warning Against Judaizing Teachers.
Paul's Grounds for Boasting in the Flesh.
All Counted As Loss Compared with Christ.
The Great Aim to Attain to the Glorious Resurrection.
Pressing Towards the Prize of the High Calling.
Enemies of the Cross.
At the Resurrection Our Present Bodies Changed to the Likeness of the
Glorified Body of Christ.
1. Rejoice in the Lord. See
2:5, and 4:4, 10.
There might be a little ground for rejoicing in earthly prospects, but
they could rejoice in Christ and the blessed hope of the gospel.
To write the same things. To repeat exhortations made before,
either in person, or sent by messengers to them.
2, 3. Beware of dogs. Those snarling and snapping like dogs. The
Judaizing teachers, who so troubled the early churches, are meant. See
Galatians, chapter 1.
Evil workers. So called because by their false teaching about the
necessity of circumcision they wrought evil.
Of the concision. Applied to those who called themselves the
circumcision. It means simply a "cutting," the class who were
mutilated. It is contemptuous.
3. We are the circumcision. See notes on
The true circumcision is not in the flesh, but of the heart in the
4-6. Though I might also have confidence in the flesh. The
confidence of the Jews was in the flesh of Abraham. They said, "We have
Abraham to our father"
But if any man had grounds for relying on the flesh, it was Paul.
5. Circumcised the eighth day. As enjoined by the law
Of the stock of Israel. Descended from Israel (Jacob), who had
the birthright of Isaac and Abraham.
Of the tribe of Benjamin. A tribe descended from the beloved
a tribe that remained faithful when the Ten Tribes of Israel seceded,
the tribe on whose soil Jerusalem and the temple stood.
A Hebrew of the Hebrews. Hebrew by race, by religion, by
education, and by custom.
A Pharisee. A member of the strictest sect in Israel, "after the
straitest manner of the sect."
6. Concerning zeal. His zeal for Judaism was demonstrated by the
fact that he was a persecutor of the church.
What were his feelings concerning this part of his career in shown in
1 Tim. 1:13-16.
Blameless. Keeping the letter of the law so as to be blameless
in the eyes of my fellow-Jews.
7-11. What things were gain to me. These things which were
counted as a gain he now counts as nothing; nay, as loss, instead of
gain for Christ. Instead of saving him, a trust in them would have been
8. I count all things but loss. In comparison with the
inestimable value of the 
knowledge of Christ, all worldly things are to be regarded as a loss.
For whom I have suffered the loss of all things. In accepting
Christ he gave up all the world holds dear. But he did not long for
them; nay, he counted them as a he would count filth, to be avoided, if
may win Christ. The one word Christ in itself embraces every
9. And be found in him. In him "there is no condemnation"
Not having mine own righteousness. Those in Christ trust not in
a legal righteousness, obtained by keeping the law, but in the
righteousness which the gospel provides to those who accept Christ
through faith. That righteousness is the forgiveness of sins,
which is of God by faith. Note that, although the definite
article is omitted in our Versions before faith, the Greek supplies
it. "The faith" is equivalent to "the gospel." It is faith in Christ
acted upon, causing an acceptance and steadfast obedience to Christ,
which secures the righteousness (forgiveness) of which Paul speaks.
10. That I may know him. By enjoying his presence in the soul;
an experimental knowledge.
And the power of his resurrection. The resurrection demonstrated
him to be the Son of God with power
The mighty power that worked in his resurrection works in the saints
(1) in their resurrection from spiritual death to a new life
(Col. 2:13; Eph. 1:19-23).
It is therefore a present power. (2) It works also when they are
lifted from the dead to eternal life. Consciousness of the victory
over sin is the earnest of the ultimate triumph over death.
And the fellowship of his sufferings. Christ's life is the plan
of that of the saint. Like him, we take the cross, are crucified with
are baptized into his death
are planted in the likeness of his death, and are risen with him
In all these we look to the suffering Savior, and are
conformed to his death. Not only do we take the form of his
sufferings, but we sympathize with him. If the obedience is from the
heart, there is a partaking of his sufferings.
11. If by any means I might attain to the resurrection from the
dead. This great consummation of a glorious resurrection to a
heavenly life is worth attaining by every sacrifice, and by every
12-14. Not as though I had already attained. Had already
obtained the great prize. It still requires effort. The prize is at the
end of the race.
Or am already made perfect. He never claimed to have received
such a state; nor does he intimate any where that such a state is ever
reached on earth.
But follow after. Press on, as one who must push forward.
If so be that I may apprehend. The idea is, I press on in the
hope that I shall lay hold upon the prize.
That. He will seek to lay hold of that for which Christ laid
hold of him at conversion, viz., his eternal salvation.
13. I count not myself yet, etc. The prize is yet before.
Constant effort is still required.
This one thing I do. 
His whole life is given to one purpose.
Forgetting the things which are behind. Especially the things
which he once counted gain
and even all the hardships and sufferings of the apostolic lot.
And reaching forth. The image is of one so eager for what is
before him that hands and body are stretched to lay hold of it.
14. I press on toward the goal. His eye is upon the goal and he
presses through every difficulty to reach it.
Unto the prize. This is the prize offered to those in the high
calling of the saints in Christ. A crown was bestowed in an earthly
race when the goal was reached. This prize is "the resurrection from
and an eternal crown.
15, 16. As many as be perfect. It cannot mean perfect in the
absolute sense, for in
he declares that he is not perfect, and surely the Philippians were not
in advance of the apostle who admonishes them. Meyer says the Greek
word here (teleioi) means mature, well developed, not children
in Christ. Let such as are so far advanced
be thus minded. Show the spirit indicated in
If . . . ye be otherwise minded. If you have not the
mind to count all else as refuse in contrast with Christ, etc.,
God shall reveal it to you; will bring you to this state of
mind. Of course this clause shows that he does not address those whom
he believes to be "perfect."
16. Only, whereunto we have already attained. The meaning is,
Those who have not reached the status I have described, let them make
the right use of all the light, ability and knowledge they have
17-21. Be followers of me. Compare
1 Cor. 4:16; 11:1.
Mark them which walk so. Not only follow my example, but note
those who do not follow it.
18. For many walk. There is a class who walk far otherwise, who
cause him great sorrow.
Of whom I have told you often. Probably, when he was preaching
at Philippi, or visiting there
(2 Cor. 2:13).
This class had come into the church, but had not left off their pagan
Now tell you weeping. Because of the evil such offenders do.
Enemies. Such persons are the worst enemies of Christ. One
church member who arouses a scandal can wound the cause of Christ more
than a dozen scoffers.
19. Whose end is destruction. Their final fate must be eternal
(2 Peter 2:3).
Whose God is their belly. They obey their sensual appetites.
Whose glory, etc. They glory in shameful things.
Mind earthly things. Instead of setting their affections on the
things that are above
20. For our conversation is in heaven. Our citizenship. See
Revision. We are citizens of heaven itself, our country, from which we
are now absent, and which we are seeking. Hence we ought to mind
heavenly things. There our Lord 
dwells, and from thence he will come.
21. Who shall change our vile body. Our lowly body shall undergo
a change to fit it for heaven. It will take the form of his glorified
body, such as was seen at the Transfiguration. Compare
1 Cor. 15:43-52;
2 Cor. 5:1-4; 1 John 3:2.
According to the working. This change shall be effected in
harmony with that mighty power which shall subdue all things to his