SUMMARY.--The Right and Wrong Way of Righteousness.
Charity Not for Show.
Our Alms-Giving Not to Be Sounded with a Trumpet.
Prayer Not to Be Offered for Public Praise.
The Model Prayer.
Fasting to Be in Secret.
Impossible to Serve God and Mammon.
Trust in the Heavenly Father.
The First Aim of Life.
1. Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men to be
seen. The Common Version is wrong,
and the Revision right, in using "righteousness." The Savior condemns
ostentatious piety, and then he singles out three illustrations of his
meaning. The Christian is not forbidden to practice righteousness
before men, but to make it his object to be seen.
2. When, therefore, thou doest alms. This is the first example.
The wrong way, that of the hypocrites, is described. The Greek word
rendered hypocrite means a theatrical actor, one who is not real, but
acts a part. Their method was to give ostentatiously. In our age the
world rings with the praises of the millionaire who gives a few
thousands, but is silent concerning the humble ones who have taken from
their necessities and given to the same cause.
Sound a trumpet before thee. This seems to be a proverbial
expression to denote the making of a thing publicly known. The meaning
is, when you give to the poor, do not make a show of it.
Hypocrite. A Grecian actor. The actors wore masks and appeared
to be somebody else than they really were. So, too, the religious
3, 4. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth. A
strong expression, to indicate that there must be no publishing of our
That thine alms may be in secret. It is not concealment that
is required, so much as to avoid ostentation.
Openly. Literally, "in the open place," in the last day, when
every secret thing is made manifest.
5. And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be, etc. The second
example of the right and wrong kind of righteousness is now given.
That men ought to pray is assured. The wrong way is that of the 
hypocrites, the men who make a public show of their devotions that
they may have the name of sanctity.
Love to pray standing in the synagogues. These love, not to
pray, but to pray where they will be seen, and pray that they may be
seen. So the Pharisees took pains to be in some public place, where
they could strike an attitude of prayer in the sight of many
observers. The same spirit is often seen still.
6. When thou prayest, enter into thy closet. Private devotions
are meant, nor is this designed to prohibit prayers in public
assemblies. The Lord himself both prayed "in the mountain alone,"
in the night alone,
and in public in the presence of his disciples. We have records of
many prayers offered by the apostles in public assemblies. "Thy
closet" may mean any secret place. Peter's closet was on the house-top;
the Savior's on a mountain alone.
7. Use not vain repetitions as the heathen do. What is
forbidden is not much praying, nor praying
in the same words (the Lord did both), but making the number of
prayers, length of prayers, or time spent in praying, a point of
observance and of merit.
1 Kings 18:26
gives an example of the repetitions of the heathen. Mahometans and
Catholics still hold that there is merit in repeating certain prayers a
set number of times.
8. For your Father knoweth. Here is given abundant reason for
short prayers. Many prayers apparently aim to give God information on
matters connected with this world.
9. After this manner pray ye. The Savior does not bid us use
these words, nor command any set form, but gives this as a proper
example of prayer, simple, brief, condensed, yet all-embracing.
Our Father which art in heaven. These words reveal a very tender
relationship between God and the true worshiper, and base the petition
on the fact that the child speaks to the Father.
Hallowed be thy name. Of the seven petitions of the Lord's
prayer the first three are in behalf of the cause of God; the glory of
his name, the extension of his kingdom, and the prevalence of his
will. The other four, which are properly placed last, as least
important, pertain to our individual needs. No one can offer the first
three petitions who is in disobedience. Hallowed. Holy, sacred,
10. Thy kingdom come. The Messiah's kingdom had not yet come,
but was proclaimed by the Lord as at hand. It did speedily come, but
in its fulness, and in its final triumph over evil, it has not yet
come. For this coming we may now pray, and the prayer is answered in
part by each success of the gospel.
Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. None can pray thus
who have not merged their own wills into the divine will. He, in
effect, prays the prayer of Gethsemane, "Not my will, but thine, be
It is mockery for disobedient lips to utter such a prayer.
11. Give us this day our daily bread. We are bidden to ask for
our bread, not for future years, but for "this day."
12. Forgive us our debts, as we forgive, etc. Debts mean moral
obligations unfulfilled--our shortcomings, our sins. Let it be noted
with emphasis that God is asked to forgive us as we forgive
others. We ask, in other words, that he may mete out to us what we
measure to others. 
13. Lead us not into temptation. The thought is that God may
preserve us from temptations that might lead us astray. No man can
pray these words who does not try to keep out of temptation.
For thine is the kingdom. This clause, called the doxology, is
wanting in the oldest and best manuscripts, and is undoubtedly an
addition by men.
14, 15. For if ye forgive men . . . your heavenly Father will forgive
you. Our Lord makes it a condition of our obtaining forgiveness,
that we shall have a merciful, forgiving spirit.
16, 17, 18. When thou fastest. This is the third example of the right
and wrong way of righteousness, in contrast. The same principle of
doing nothing for mere show is still insisted upon. Fasting is not
wrong, and, indeed, is often blessed richly, but not when our object
is to appear to men to fast.
Of sad countenance. It was common to assume a woe-begone look,
put ashes upon the head, and even wear sackcloth, in order to show to
the world deep humiliation. This is condemned.
Anoint thine head. That is, dress as usual.
Wash thy face. The usual practice before eating.
Thy Father . . . shall reward thee. Our self-denial must be
for the eyes of God, not of men.
19. Lay not up treasures on the earth. This forbids, not the
laying up of treasures, but laying them up on the earth; that is, the
piling up of worldly wealth for worldly purposes. Riches are no sin
in themselves, but the improper use of riches is a sin.
Where moth and rust corrupt. Unused garments often become
moth-eaten; unused coin sometimes rust. All earth treasure will
Thieves break through. Literally, "dig through." Often robbers
in the East dig through the house walls of mud or unburnt brick.
20. Lay up . . . treasures in heaven. This is the only way to
save our wealth. It is a positive precept. Our wealth must be
consecrated to God and used as his work demands. Wealth used for doing
good is treasure laid up in heaven.
21. For. This introduces a reason for the preceding precepts.
Where thy treasure is will be thy heart. This states a
universal truth. A man's heart will be upon what he treasures most. If
his treasure is in heaven, heaven will have his heart.
22, 23. The light of the body is the eye. This is not an abrupt
transition, but bears on the same 
subject. If one's eye is diseased, all he sees is wrong. So the mind,
or conscience, is the light of the soul. If these be darkened, all is
darkness; if these see aright, all is light.
24. No man can serve two masters. He cannot give his heart to
two services at the same time. He cannot follow two callings
Ye cannot serve God and mammon. This is the direct application.
The Chaldee word "Mammon" means money or riches. It is
here personified as an idol. "Mammon" originally meant
"trust," or confidence, and riches is the trust of worldly men. If God
be not the object of supreme trust, something else will be, and it is
most likely to be money.
25. Take no thought for your life. At the time the Common
Version was made, the expression "Take thought," meant to be
anxious. The Revision properly renders it, "Be not anxious." The
means, "to have the mind distracted." Christ does not forbid prudent
Is not the life more than food? The argument is: God gave the
life, and it is higher than food. If he gave it, he will see that it is
sustained, if you trust in him. So, too, he made the body. He will see
that it is clothed.
26. Behold the fowls of the air. God feeds the birds without
their sowing or reaping, but they do the work for which they were
created, and God takes care of them. So, too, he will take care of
us--not in idleness or improvidence--but if we do the work for which
God created us.
27. Which of you can add one cubit, etc. There can hardly be a
doubt that this ought to be rendered, "add one cubit to his age," or
period of life. The idea is: "What is the use of anxiety? Who, by his
anxiety, can add anything to life's journey"? If it is proper to speak
of "length of life," it is also appropriate to speaking of
adding a cubit to its length.
28. Consider the lilies. While the lilies do not toil or spin,
they do their work, draw up sustenance from the earth, and drink in
the dew, rain and sunbeams. So we are to do our appointed work. It we
do this, trusting in God, he will supply all our needs.
29. Even Solomon in all his glory. To the Jew the court of
Solomon was the highest representation of human glory. The
magnificence of the court is not only celebrated in Jewish writings,
but in all Oriental literature, and it is still proverbial throughout
the East. Yet he was never arrayed with the taste and beauty of one
of these. It is probable that both birds and lilies were in sight
from where the Lord was sitting.
30. If God so clothe the grass of the field. Wild flowers
belong to the herbage that is cut with 
the grass. In Palestine the forests in many localities disappeared
thousands of years ago, and in the scarcity of fuel, dried grass and
weeds are often used to heat the oven.
31. Therefore take no thought. Have no anxiety over the
question of food and raiment. Do your duty, with a full trust in God
that he will see that you do not lack for these things.
32. For after all these things do the Gentiles seek. This
worldliness, anxiety, and distrust, might do in heathen, who have no
knowledge of a heavenly Father, but you have a heavenly Father, and he
knows that ye need all these things.
33. Seek ye first the kingdom of God. The promise is made that
if we seek it first, and its righteousness, all earthly wants will be
supplied. The condition demands, 1. That we seek the kingdom
first in point of time. Some propose to secure a competence,
and after they have gained it, they will serve God. 2. We must make
it first in importance. Everything else must give way before
its demands. 3. It must be first in our affections, have our
whole hearts. We must "love the Lord our God with the whole heart"
His righteousness. The righteousness that God bestows upon
those who are in the Kingdom, Christ's righteousness, the forgiveness
of sins in his name.
34. Take, therefore, no thought for the morrow. Again, it
should read, as in the Revision, "Have no anxiety about to-morrow."
The morrow will take thought for itself. Not "take care of
itself," but bring its own cares, anxieties and troubles. We should
not foolishly increase our present burden by borrowing trouble about