1. A bad conscience makes men timid; the righteous are alone truly bold (Pr 14:26 Ps 27:1).
2. Anarchy producing contending rulers shortens the reign of each. but by a man . . . prolonged--or, "by a man of understanding--that is, a good ruler--he who knows or regards the right, that is, a good citizen, shall prolong (his days)." Good rulers are a blessing to the people. Bad government as a punishment for evil is contrasted with good as blessing to the good. 3. A poor man, &c.--Such, in power, exact more severely, and so leave subjects bare. 4. They that forsake . . . wicked--Wrongdoers encourage one another. 5. (Compare Joh 7:17). Ignorance of moral truth is due to unwillingness to know it.
6. (Compare Pr 10:6). Riches cannot compensate for sin, nor the want of them affect integrity.
7. (Compare Pr 17:25). riotous men--or, "gluttons" (Pr 23:20,21). 8. usury . . . unjust gain--(Compare Margin). The two terms, meaning nearly the same, may denote excessive interest. God's providence directs the proper use of wealth. 9. (Compare Pr 15:8 21:27). hearing--that is, obeying. God requires sincere worshippers (Ps 66:18 Joh 4:24). 10. (Compare Pr 26:27). 11. A poor but wise man can discover (and expose) the rich and self-conceited. 12. great glory--or, cause for it to a people, for the righteous rejoice in good, and righteousness exalts a nation (Pr 14:34). a man . . . hidden--that is, the good retire, or all kinds try to escape a wicked rule.
13. (Compare Ps 32:3-5). Concealment of sin delivers none from God's wrath, but He shows mercy to the humble penitent (Ps 51:4).
14. feareth--that is, God, and so repents. hardeneth his heart--makes himself insensible to sin, and so will not repent (Pr 14:16 29:1). 15. The rapacity and cruelty of such beasts well represent some wicked men (compare Ps 7:2 17:12). 16. The prince . . . understanding--that is, He does not perceive that oppression jeopards his success. Covetousness often produces oppression, hence the contrast. 17. doeth violence . . . blood, &c.--or, that is oppressed by the blood of life (Ge 9:6), which he has taken. to the pit--the grave or destruction (Pr 1:12 Job 33:18-24 Ps 143:7). stay him--sustain or deliver him. 18. (Compare Pr 10:9 17:20). Double dealing is eventually fatal. 19. (Compare Pr 10:4 20:4). vain persons--idle, useless drones, implying that they are also wicked (Pr 12:11 Ps 26:4). 20. maketh haste . . . rich--implying deceit or fraud (Pr 20:21), and so opposed to "faithful" or reliable. 21. respect of persons--(Pr 24:23). Such are led to evil by the slightest motive. 22. (Compare Pr 28:20). evil eye--in the general sense of Pr 23:6, here more specific for covetousness (compare Pr 22:9 Mt 20:15). poverty . . . him--by God's providence. 23. (Compare Pr 9:8,9 27:5). Those benefited by reproof will love their monitors. 24. (Compare Mt 15:4-6). Such, though heirs, are virtually thieves, to be ranked with highwaymen. 25. of a proud heart--literally, "puffed up of soul"--that is, self-confident, and hence overbearing and litigious. made fat--or, "prosperous" (Pr 11:25 16:20). 26. (Compare Pr 3:6-8). walketh wisely--that is, trusting in God (Pr 22:17-19). 27. (Compare Pr 11:24-26). hideth his eyes--as the face (Ps 27:9 69:17), denotes inattention. 28. The elevation of the wicked to power drives men to seek refuge from tyranny (compare Pr 28:12 Pr 11:10 Ps 12:8).