Ps 148:1-14. The scope of this Psalm is the same as that of the preceding.
1. heavens [and] heights--are synonymous.
2. hosts--(compare Ps 103:21). 4. heavens of heavens--the very highest. waters--clouds, resting above the visible heavens (compare Ge 1:7). 5. praise the name--as representing His perfections. he commanded--"He" is emphatic, ascribing creation to God alone. 6. The perpetuity of the frame of nature is, of course, subject to Him who formed it. a decree . . . pass--His ordinances respecting them shall not change (Jer 36:31), or perish (Job 34:20 Ps 37:36).
7-10. The call on the earth, as opposed to heaven, includes seas or depths, whose inhabitants the dragon, as one of the largest (on leviathan, see on Ps 104:26), is selected to represent. The most destructive and ungovernable agents of inanimate nature are introduced
8. fulfilling his word--or, law, may be understood of each. Next the most distinguished productions of the vegetable world. 9. fruitful trees--or, "trees of fruit," as opposed to forest trees. Wild and domestic, large and small animals are comprehended. 11, 12. Next all rational beings, from the highest in rank to little children. princes--or, military leaders. 13. Let them--all mentioned. excellent--or, exalted (Isa 12:4). his glory--majesty (Ps 45:3). above the earth and heaven--Their united splendors fail to match His. 14. exalteth the horn--established power (Ps 75:5,6). praise of--or literally, "for" his saints--that is, occasions for them to praise Him. They are further described as "His people," and "near unto Him," sustaining by covenanted care a peculiarly intimate relation.