28:1 Woe to the a crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim,
whose glorious beauty [is] a fading flower, who [are] on
the head of the rich b valleys of them that are overcome
(a) Meaning, the proud kingdom of the Israelites, who were
drunk with worldly prosperity.
(b) Because the Israelites for the most part dwelt in
plentiful valleys, he means by this the valley of them
who had abundance of worldly prosperity and were as it
were crowned with garlands.
28:2 Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and c strong one, [which]
as a tempest of hail [and] a destroying storm, as a flood
of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth
with the hand.
(c) He seems to mean the Assyrians, by whom the ten tribes
were carried away.
28:4 And the glorious beauty, which [is] on the head of the rich
valley, shall be a fading flower, [and] as d the early
fruit before the summer; which [when] he that looketh upon
it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up.
(d) Which is not of long continuance, but is soon ripe and
28:5 In that day shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of
glory, and for a diadem of beauty, to the e remnant of
(e) Signifying that the faithful who do not put their trust
in any worldly prosperity but made God their glory,
will be preserved.
28:6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in
judgment, and for f strength to them that turn the battle
to the gate.
(f) He will give counsel to the governor and strength to
the captain to drive the enemies in at their own gates.
28:7 But g they also have erred through wine, and through
strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet
have erred through strong drink, they are overwhelmed with
wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they
err in vision, they stumble [in] judgment.
(g) Meaning, the hypocrites who were among them, and were
altogether corrupt in life and doctrine, which is here
meant by drunkenness and vomiting.
28:9h Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make
to understand doctrine? [them that are] weaned from the
milk, [and] drawn from the breasts.
(h) For there was no one that was able to understand any
good doctrine: but were foolish and as unfit as young
28:10 For i precept [must be] upon precept, precept upon
precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little,
[and] there a little:
(i) They must have one thing often repeated.
28:11 For with stammering k lips and another tongue will he
speak to this people.
(k) Let one teach what he can, yet they will no more
understand him, than if he spoke in a strange
28:12 To whom l he said, m This [is] the rest [with which]
ye may n cause the weary to rest; and this [is] the
refreshing: yet they would not hear.
(l) That is, the prophet, whom God would send.
(m) This is the doctrine on which you ought to stay and
(n) Show to them that are weary and have need of rest,
what the true rest is.
28:13 But the word of the o LORD was to them precept upon
precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon
line; here a little, [and] there a little; that they might
go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and
(o) Because they will not receive the word of God, when it
is offered, it comes of their own malice, if after
their hearts are so hardened, that they care not for
it, as before, (Isa 6:9).
28:15 Because ye have said, We have made a p covenant with
death, and with hell are we in agreement; when the
overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not reach
us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under q
falsehood have we hid ourselves:
(p) They thought they had shifts to avoid God's judgments,
and that they could escape though all others perished.
(q) Though the prophets condemned their idols and vain
fruit of falsehood and vanity, yet the wicked thought
in themselves that they would trust in these things.
28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion
for a foundation a stone, a r tried stone, a precious
corner [stone], a sure foundation: he that believeth s
shall not make haste.
28:25 When he hath made c even the face of it, doth he not
cast abroad the black cummin, and scatter the cummin, and
cast in the wheat in rows and the appointed barley and the
rye in their place?
(c) As the plowman has his appointed time, and various
instruments for his labour, so has the Lord for his
vengeance: for he punishes some at one time, and some
at another, some after one sort, and some after
another, so that his chosen seed is beaten and tried,
but not broken as are the wicked.