9:1 Then verily 1 the first [covenant] had also ordinances of
divine service, and a a worldly sanctuary.
(1) A division of the first tabernacle which he calls worldly,
that is to say, transitory, and earthly, into two parts,
that is, into the holy places, and the Holiest of all.
(a) An earthy and a fleeting.
9:3 And after b the second veil, the tabernacle which is
called the c Holiest of all;
(b) He calls it the second veil, not because there were two
veils, but because it was behind the sanctuary or the
(c) The holiest sanctuary.
9:5 And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the d
mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.
(d) The Hebrews call the cover of the ark of the covenant
the mercy seat, which both the Greeks and we do also.
9:62 Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests
went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the
service [of God].
(2) Now he comes to the sacrifices which he divides into those
daily sacrifices and that yearly and solemn sacrifice with
which the high priest only but once every year entering
into the Holiest of all with blood, offered for himself and
9:7 But into the second [went] the high priest alone once every
year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and
[for] the e errors of the people:
9:83 The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the
holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first
tabernacle was yet standing:
(3) Of that yearly rite and the ceremony, he gathers that the
way into heaven was not opened by such sacrifices, which
was shadowed by the Holiest of all. For why did only the
high priest enter in, excluding all others, to offer
sacrifices there both for himself and for others, and
after, shut the Holiest of all again?
9:94 Which [was] a figure f for the time then present, in
which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not
make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the
(4) An objection: If the way to heaven was not opened by those
sacrifices (that is to say, if the worshippers were not
purged by them) why then were those ceremonies used? That
is, that men might be called back to that spiritual
example, that is to say, to Christ who would correct all
those things at his coming.
(f) For that time that that figure had to last.
9:105 [Which stood] only in meats and drinks, and divers
washings, and carnal ordinances, g imposed [on them]
until the time of reformation.
(5) Another reason why they could not clear the conscience
of the worshipper is because they were outward and carnal
or material things.
(g) For they were as you would say, a burden, from which
Christ delivered us.
9:116 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to
come, 7 by a h greater and more perfect tabernacle, not
made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
(6) Now he enters into the declaration of the types, and
first of all comparing the Levitical high priest with
Christ, (that is to say, the figure with the thing itself)
he attributes to Christ the administration of good things
to come, that is, everlasting, which those carnal things
had respect to.
(7) Another comparison of the first corrupt tabernacle with the
latter, (that is to say, with the human nature of Christ)
which is the true incorruptible temple of God, into which
the Son of God entered, as the Levitical high priests into
the other which was frail and transitory.
(h) By a more excellent and better.
9:128 Neither by the blood of i goats and calves, but by
his own blood he entered in once into the holy place,
having obtained eternal redemption [for us].
(8) Another comparison of the blood of the sacrifices with
Christ, the Levitical high priests entering by their holy
places into the sanctuary, offered corruptible blood for
one year only: but Christ entering into that holy body of
his, entered by it into heaven itself, offering his own
most pure blood for an everlasting redemption: for Christ
is both the High Priest, Tabernacle, Sacrifices and
Offerings themselves, indeed all those both truly and for ever.
(i) For in this yearly sacrifice of reconciliation, there
were two kinds of sacrifices, the one a goat, the other
a heifer, or calf.
9:139 For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes
of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the k
purifying of the flesh:
(9) If the outward sprinkling of blood and ashes of beasts was
a true and effectual sign of purifying and cleansing, how
much more shall the thing itself and the truth being
present which in times past was shadowed by those external
sacraments do it? That is to say, his blood, which is
man's blood and also the blood of the Son of God, and
therefore has an everlasting power of purifying and
(k) He considers the signs separately, being separate from
the thing itself.
9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the
eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge
your conscience from l dead works to serve the living
(l) From sins which proceed from death, and bring forth
nothing but death.
9:1510 And for this cause he is the mediator of the new
testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of
the transgressions [that were] under the first testament,
they which are called might receive the promise of eternal
(10) The conclusion of the former argument: therefore seeing
the blood of beasts did not purge sins, the new Testament
which was promised before, to which those outward things
had respect, is now indeed established by the power by
which all transgressions might be taken away, and heaven
indeed opened to us. It follows that Christ shed his blood
also for the fathers, for he was foreshadowed by these old
ceremonies, otherwise, unless they served to represent
him, they were not at all profitable. Therefore this
Testament is called the latter, not concerning the power
of it, (that is to say, remission of sins) but in respect
of that time in which the thing itself was finished, that
is to say, in which Christ was exhibited to the world, and
fulfilled all things necessary for our salvation.
9:1611 For where a testament [is], there must also of
necessity be the death of the testator.
(11) A reason why the testament must be established by the
death of the Mediator, because this testament has the
condition of a testament or gift, which is made effective
by death, and therefore that it might be effective, it
must be that he that made the Testament, should die.
9:1812 Whereupon neither the first [testament] was dedicated
(12) There must be a proportion between those things which
purify and those which are purified: Under the law all
those figures were earthly, the tabernacle, the book, the
vessels, the sacrifices, although they were the signs of
heavenly things. Therefore it was required that all those
should be purified with some matter and ceremony of the
same nature, that is, with the blood of beasts, with
water, wool, hyssop. But under Christ all things are
heavenly, a heavenly tabernacle, heavenly sacrifice,
heavenly people, heavenly doctrine, and heaven itself is
set open before us for an eternal home. Therefore all
these things are sanctified in a similar way, that is,
with the everlasting offering of the quickening blood of
9:19 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people
m according to the law, he took the blood of calves and
of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and n
sprinkled both the book, and all the people,
(m) As the Lord had commanded.
(n) He used to sprinkle.
9:23 [It was] therefore necessary that the o patterns of
things in the heavens should be purified with these; but
the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than
(o) The counterparts of heavenly things were earthly, and
therefore they were to be set forth with earthly
things, as with the blood of beasts, wool and hyssop.
But under Christ all things are heavenly, and therefore
they could not be sanctified with the offering of his
9:2413 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made
with hands, [which are] the figures of the true; but into
heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:
(13) Another twofold comparison: the Levitical high priest
entered into the sanctuary, which was made indeed by the
commandment of God, but yet with men's hands, that it
might be a pattern of another more excellent, that is, of
the heavenly place, but Christ entered into heaven
itself. Again he appeared before the ark, but Christ
before God the Father himself.
9:2514 Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the
high priest entereth into the holy place every year with
blood of others;
(14) Another double comparison: the Levitical high priest
offered other blood, but Christ offered his own: he every
year once repeated his offering: Christ offering himself
but once, abolished sin altogether, both of the former
ages and of the ages to come.
9:2615 For then must he often have suffered since the
foundation of the world: but now once in the p end of the
world hath he appeared to put away q sin by the sacrifice
(15) An argument to prove that Christ's offering should not be
repeated: seeing that sins were to be purged from the
beginning of the world, and it is proved that sins cannot
be purged, but by the blood of Christ: he would have
needed to have died repeatedly, since the beginning of the
world. But a man can die only once: therefore Christ's
sacrifice which was once done in the later days, neither
could nor can be repeated. Seeing that it is so, surely
the power of it extends both to sins that were before,
and to sins that are after his coming.
(p) In the later days.
(q) That whole root of sin.
9:27 And as it is appointed unto men r once to die, but after
this the judgment:
(r) He speaks of the natural state and condition of man:
For though Lazarus and certain others died twice, that
was no usual thing, but extraordinary: and as for them
that shall be changed, their changing is a kind of
death. )See Geneva "1Co 15:51")
9:28 So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of s many;
16 and unto them that look for him shall he appear the
second time without sin unto salvation.
(s) Thus the general promise is restrained to the elect
only: and we have to seek the testimony of our
election, not in the secret counsel of God, but in the
effects that our faith works, and so we must climb up
from the lowest step to the highest, there to find such
comfort as is most certain, and shall never be moved.
(16) Shortly by the way he sets Christ as Judge, partly to
terrify those who are not trusting in the only sacrifice
of Christ once made, and partly to keep the faithful in
their duty, so that they will not go back.