1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of a Ahasuerus, (this [is]
Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia,
[over] an b hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
The Argument - Because of the variety of names, by which they
used to call their kings, and the number of years in which
the Hebrews and the Greeks vary, various authors write
concerning that Ahasuerus but is seems in (Da 6:1,9:1)
that he was Darius king of the Medes and son of Astyages
also called Ahasuerus which was a name of honour and
signified great and chief as chief head. In this is declared
the great mercies of God toward his church: who never fails
them in their greatest dangers, but when all hope of worldly
help fades, he stirs up some, by whom he sends comfort and
deliverance. In this also is described the ambition, pride
and cruelty of the wicked when they come to honour and their
sudden fall when they are at their highest and how God
preserves and prefers them who are zealous of his glory and
have a care and love for their brethren.
(a) Also called Darius, who was now the favourite monarch
and had the government of the Medes, Persians and
Chaldeans. Some think he was Darius Hystaspis also
(b) (Da 6:1) makes mention of only 120 leaving out the
number that are imperfect as the scripture uses in
1:2 [That] in those days, when the king Ahasuerus c sat on the
throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace,
(c) That is, had rest and quietness.
1:6 [Where were] white, green, and blue, [hangings], fastened
with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and
pillars of marble: the d beds [were of] gold and silver,
upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black,
(d) Which they used in those countries instead of tables.
1:7 And they gave [them] drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels
being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in
abundance, according to the e state of the king.
(e) As was befitting for so magnificent a king.
1:8 And the drinking [was] according to the law; none did f
compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of
his house, that they should do according to every man's
(f) No one was forced to drink more than it pleased him.
1:10 On the g seventh day, when the heart of the king was
merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona,
Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven
chamberlains that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the
(g) Which was the last day of the feast that the king made
for the people as in (Es 1:5).
1:13 Then the king said to the wise men, h which knew the
times, (for so [was] the king's manner toward all that knew
law and judgment:
(h) Who had experience in things as they had learned by
diligent marking in continuance of time.
1:14 And the next unto him [was] Carshena, Shethar, Admatha,
Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, [and] Memucan, the seven princes
of Persia and Media, which saw the i king's face, [and]
which sat the first in the kingdom;)
(i) Who were his chief counsellors that always had access
1:16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes,
Vashti the queen hath not done k wrong to the king only,
but also to all the princes, and to all the people that
[are] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.
(k) By her disobedience she has given an example to all
women to do the same to their husbands.
1:17 For [this] l deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all
women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their
eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus
commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but
she came not.
(l) That is, her disobedience.
1:18 [Likewise] shall the m ladies of Persia and Media say
this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of
the deed of the queen. Thus [shall there arise] too much
contempt and wrath.
(m) Meaning, that they would take the first opportunity to
do the same and the rest of the women would also do the
1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment
from him, and let it be written among the laws of the
Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti
come n no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king
give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.
(n) Let her be divorced and another made queen.
1:20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be
published throughout all his empire, (for it is o great,)
all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to
great and small.
(o) For he had under him a hundred and twenty-seven
1:22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into
every province according to the writing thereof, and to
every people after their language, that every man should
p bear rule in his own house, and that [it] should be
published according to the language of every people.
(p) That is, that the wife should be subject to the husband
and at his commandment.