1:1 Paul, 1 an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to
the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the a faithful in
(1) The inscription and salutation, of which we have spoken in
the former epistles.
(a) This is the definition of the saints, showing what they
1:32 Blessed [be] the God 3 and Father of our Lord Jesus
Christ, 4 who hath blessed us with b all spiritual
blessings in c heavenly [places] in 5 Christ:
(2) The first part of the epistle, in which he handles all the
parts of our salvation, setting forth the example of the
Ephesians. And he uses various exhortations, and begins
after his manner with thanksgiving.
(3) The efficient cause of our salvation is God, not considered
generally, but as the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
(4) The next final cause, and in respect of us, is our
salvation, all things being bestowed upon us which are
necessary to our salvation, which type of blessings is
heavenly and proper to the elect.
(b) With every type of gracious and bountiful goodness
which is heavenly indeed, and from God alone.
(c) Which God our Father gave us from his high throne from
above: or because the saints have those gifts bestowed
on them, which belong properly to the citizens of
(5) The matter of our salvation is Christ, in whom alone we are
endued with spiritual blessing and that to salvation.
1:46 According as he hath chosen us in d him before the
foundation of the world, 7 that we e should f be holy
and without blame g before him in love:
(6) He declares the efficient cause, or by what means God the
Father saves us in his Son: because, he says, he chose us
from everlasting in his Son.
(d) To be adopted in him.
(7) He expounds the next final cause which is twofold, that is,
sanctification and justification, of which he will speak
later. And by this also two things are to be noted, that
is, that holiness of life cannot be separated from the
grace of election: and again, whatever pureness is in us,
is the gift of God who has freely of his mercy chosen us.
(e) God then, did not choose us because we were, or
otherwise would have been holy, but to the end we
should be holy.
(f) Being clothed with Christ's righteousness.
(g) Truly and sincerely.
1:58 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by
Jesus Christ h to himself, according to the good pleasure
of his will,
(8) Another plainer exposition of the efficient cause, and also
of eternal election, by which God is said to have chosen us
in Christ, that is, because it pleased him to appoint us
when we were not yet born, whom he would make to be his
children by Jesus Christ. So that there is no reason for
our election to be looked for here, except in the free
mercy of God. And neither is faith which God foresaw the
cause of our predestination, but the effect.
(h) God respects nothing, either anything that is present,
or anything that is to come, but himself only.
1:69 To the i praise of the glory of his grace, 10
wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.
(9) The uttermost and chiefest final cause is the glory of God
the Father, who saves us freely in his Son.
(i) That as his bountiful goodness deserves all praise, so
also it should be set forth and proclaimed.
(10) Another final cause more near is our justification, in
that he freely accounted us as being righteous in his Son.
1:711 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the
forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;
(11) An expounding of the material cause, how we are made
acceptable to God in Christ, for it is he alone whose
sacrifice by the mercy of God is imputed to us, for the
forgiveness of sins.
1:812k Wherein he hath abounded toward us in l all
wisdom and prudence;
(12) Now he comes at length to the formal cause, that is to
say, to vocation or preaching of the Gospel, by which God
executes that eternal counsel of our free reconciliation
and salvation in Christ. And putting in place of the
Gospel all wisdom and understanding, he shows how
excellent it is.
(k) By which gracious goodness and bountifulness.
(l) In perfect and sound wisdom.
1:9 Having made known unto us the m mystery of his will, 13
according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in
(m) For unless the Lord had opened to us that mystery, we
could never have so much as dreamed of it ourselves.
(13) Not only the election, but also the calling proceeds from
1:1014 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he
might n gather together in one all things in Christ, both
which are in heaven, and which are on earth; [even] in him:
(14) The Father exhibited and gave Christ, who is the head of
all the elect to the world, at that time which was
convenient according as he most wisely disposed all times
from everlasting. And Christ is he in whom all the elect
from the beginning of the world (otherwise wandering and
separated from God) are gathered together. And some of
these elect were in heaven, when he came into the earth,
that is, those who by faith in him to come, were gathered
together. And others being found upon the earth were
gathered together by him, and the rest are daily gathered
(n) The faithful are said to be gathered together in
Christ, because they are joined together with him
through faith, and become as it were one man.
1:1115 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being
predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh
o all things after the counsel of his own will:
(15) He applies respectively the benefit of calling to the
believing Jews, going back to the very source, so that
they also may not attribute their salvation either to
themselves, nor to their stock, nor any other thing, but
only to the grace and mercy of God, both because they were
called, and also because they were first called.
(o) All things are attributed to the grace of God without
exception, and yet for all that we are not statues,
for he gives us grace both to want, and to be able to
do those things that are good; (Php 2:13).
1:12 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who p first
trusted in Christ.
(p) He speaks concerning the Jews.
1:1316 In whom ye also [trusted], after that ye heard the q
word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also
after that ye believed, ye were r sealed with that holy
s Spirit of promise,
(16) Now he makes the Ephesians (or rather all the Gentiles)
equal to the Jews, because even though they came last,
being called by the same Gospel, they embraced faith, and
were sealed up with the same Spirit, who is the pledge of
election, until the inheritance itself is seen. And this
is so that in them also the glory of God might shine forth
and be manifested.
(q) That word which is truth indeed, because it comes from
(r) This is a metaphor taken of a seal, which being put on
anything, distinguishes between those things which are
authentic, and those things which are not.
(s) With the Spirit, who does not bring the Law, but the
promise of free adoption.
1:14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the t
redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of
(t) Full and perfect.
1:1517 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the
Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,
(17) He returns to the former account of the good received from
God, concluding two things together about those things
that went before: the first is that all good things come
to us from God the Father in Christ, and by Christ, so
that for them he may be praised by us. The second is,
that all those things (which he brings to two heads, that
is, faith and charity) are increased in us by certain
degrees, so that we must desire an increase of his grace,
from whom we have the beginning, and from whom we hope for
1:1718 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of
u glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and
revelation in the x knowledge of him:
(18) The causes of faith are God the Father enlightening our
minds with his Holy Spirit, so that we may embrace Christ
revealed to us in the Gospel, to the obtaining of
everlasting life, and the setting forth of God's glory.
(u) Full of majesty.
(x) For it is not enough for us to have known God once,
but we must know him every day more and more.
1:18 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye
may know what is the y hope of his calling, and what the
riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,
(y) What blessings they are which he calls you to hope for,
whom he calls to Christ.
1:1919 And what [is] the exceeding greatness of his power to
us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty
(19) The excellency of faith is declared by the effects,
because the mighty power of God is set forth and shown in
1:2020 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from
the dead, and set [him] at his own z right hand in the
(20) The apostle wishes us to behold in our most glorious
Christ (with the eyes of faith) that most excellent power
and glory of God, of which all the faithful are partakers,
even though it is as yet very dim in us, by reason of the
shame of the cross, and the weakness of the flesh.
(z) To be set on God's right hand is to be a partaker of
the sovereignty which he has over all creatures.
1:21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and
dominion, and every a name that is named, not only in
this world, but also in that which is to come:
(a) Everything, whatever it may be, or above all things,
even if they are of ever so much power or excellency.
1:2221 And hath put all [things] under his feet, and gave him
[to be] the b head over all [things] to the church,
(21) So that we should not think that the excellent glory of
Christ is a thing with which we have nothing to do, he
witnesses that Christ was appointed by God the Father as
head over all the Church, and therefore the body must be
joined to this head, which otherwise would be a maimed
thing, without the members. However, this is not because
of necessity (seeing that it is rather the Church which is
made alive and sustained by the holy power of Christ, so
it is far from being true that he needs the fulness of
it), but because of the infinite goodwill and pleasure of
God, who condescends to join us to his Son.
(b) Insomuch that there is nothing that is not subject to
1:23 Which is his body, the c fulness of him that filleth all
(c) For the love of Christ is so great towards the Church,
that even though he fully satisfies all with all
things, yet he considers himself but a maimed and
unperfect head, unless he has the Church joined to him
as his body.