7:1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a
dream and visions of his head upon his bed: a then he
wrote the dream, [and] told the sum of the matters.
(a) Whereas the people of Israel looked for a continual
peace, after the seventy years which Jeremiah had
declared, he shows that this rest will not be a
deliverance from all troubles, but a beginning. And
therefore he encourages them to look for a continual
affliction until the Messiah is uttered and revealed, by
whom they would have a spiritual deliverance, and all
the promises would be fulfilled. And they would have a
certain experience of this in the destruction of the
7:2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and,
behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon b the
(b) Which signified that there wold be horrible troubles and
afflictions in the world in all corners of the world,
and at various times.
7:4 The first [was] like a c lion, and had eagle's wings: I
beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was
lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a
man, and a man's heart was given to it.
(c) Meaning the Assyrian and Chaldean empire, which was most
strong and fierce in power, and most soon to come to
their authority, as though they had wings to fly: yet
their wings were pulled off by the Persians, and they
went on their feet, and were made like other men, which
is meant here by man's heart.
7:5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a d bear, and
it raised up itself on e one side, and [it had] three ribs
in the f mouth of it between the teeth of it: g and they
said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.
(d) Meaning the Persians who were barbarous and cruel.
(e) They were small in the beginning, and were shut up in
the mountains, and had no strength.
(f) That is, destroyed many kingdoms and whose hunger
could not be satisfied.
(g) That is, the angels by God's commandment, who by this
means punished the ingratitude of the world.
7:6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a h leopard,
which had upon the back of it i four wings of a fowl; the
beast had also four heads; and k dominion was given to it.
(h) Meaning Alexander the king of Macedonia.
(i) That is, his four chief captains, which had the empire
among them after his death. Selencus had Asia the
great, Antigonus the less, Cassander and after him
Antipater was king of Macedonia, and Ptolemeus had
(k) It was not of himself nor of his own power that he
gained all these countries: for his army contained only
thirty thousand men, and he overcame in one battle
Darius, who had one million, when he was so heavy with
sleep that his eyes were hardly open, as the stories
report: therefore this power was given to him from God.
7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a l
fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly;
and it had great m iron teeth: it devoured and brake in
pieces, and stamped n the residue with the feet of it: and
it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it;
and it had o ten horns.
(l) That is, the Roman empire which was a monster, and could
not be compared to any beast, because there was no beast
that was even comparable.
(m) Signifying the tyranny and greediness of the Romans.
(n) That which the Romans could not quietly enjoy in other
countries, they would give it to other kings and rulers,
so that whenever they wanted to, they might take it
again: which liberality is here called the stamping of
the rest under the feet.
(o) That is, various and different provinces which were
governed by the deputies and proconsuls: and each one of
these might be compared to a king.
7:8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among
them another little p horn, before whom there were q
three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and,
behold, in this horn [were] r eyes like the eyes of man,
and a mouth speaking great things.
(p) Which is meant of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius,
Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, etc., who were as kings in
effect, but because they could not rule, except by the
consent of the senate, their power is compared to a
little horn. For Muhammad did not come from the Roman
Empire, and the pope has no vocation of government:
therefore this cannot be applied to them, and also in
this prophecy the Prophet's purpose is chiefly to
comfort the Jews until the revelation of Christ. Some
take it for the whole body of antichrist.
(q) Meaning a certain portion of the ten horns: that is, a
part from the whole estate was taken away. For Augustus
took from the senate the liberty of choosing the
deputies to send into the provinces, and took the
governing of certain countries to himself.
(r) These Roman emperors at the first used a certain
humanity and gentleness, and were content that others,
as the consuls, and senate, should bear the names of
dignity, so that they might have the profit. And
therefore in election and counsels they would behave
themselves according as did other senators: yet against
their enemies and those that would resist them, they
were fierce and cruel, which is here meant by the proud
7:9 I beheld till the s thrones were cast down, and the t
Ancient of days did sit, whose garment [was] white as snow,
and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne [was
like] the fiery flame, [and] his wheels [as] burning fire.
(s) Meaning, the places where God and his angels would come
to judge these monarchies, which judgment would begin at
the first coming of Christ.
(t) That is, God who was before all times, and is here
described in a way such that man's nature is able to
comprehend some portion of his glory.
7:10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him:
thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand
u times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was
set, and the x books were opened.
(u) That is, an infinite number of angels, who were ready
to execute his commandment.
(x) This is meant of the first coming of Christ, when the
will of God was plainly revealed by his Gospel.
7:11 I beheld then y because of the voice of the great words
which the horn spake: I beheld [even] till the beast was
slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning
(y) Meaning that he was astonished when he saw these
emperors in such dignity and pride, so suddenly
destroyed at the coming of Christ, when this fourth
monarchy was subject to men of other nations.
7:12 As z concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their
dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a
season and time.
(z) As the three former monarchies had an end at the time
that God appointed, even though they flourished for a
time, so will this fourth have an end, and they that
patiently wait for God's appointment, will enjoy the
7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, a [one] like the
Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and b came to
the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
(a) Which is meant of Christ, who had not yet taken upon
him man's nature, neither was he yet the son of David
according to the flesh, as he was afterward: but he
appeared then in a figure, and that in the clouds, that
is, being separated from the common sort of men by
manifest signs of his divinity.
(b) That is, when he ascended into the heavens, and his
divine majesty appeared, and all power was given to
him, in respect that he was our mediator.
7:14 And there was given him c dominion, and glory, and a
kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should
serve him: his dominion [is] an everlasting dominion, which
shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not
(c) This is meant of the beginning of Christ's kingdom,
when God the Father gave unto him all dominion, as the
the Mediator, with the intent that he would continually
govern his Church which is here on earth, until the
time that he brought them to eternal life.
7:15 I Daniel was d grieved in my spirit in the midst of [my]
body, and the visions of my head troubled me.
(d) Because of the strangeness of the vision.
7:16 I came near unto e one of them that stood by, and asked
him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know
the interpretation of the things.
(e) Meaning one of the angels, as in )Geneva "Dan 7:10")
7:18 But the saints of the f most High shall take the g
kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever
(f) That is, of the most high things, because God has
chosen them out of this world, that they should look up
to the heavens, upon which all their hope depends.
(g) Because Abraham was appointed heir of all the world,
(Ro 4:13), and in him all the faithful, therefore
the kingdom of him is theirs by right, which these four
beasts or tyrants would invade, and usurp until the
world were restored by Christ. And this was to
strengthen and encourage those that were in troubles,
that their afflictions would eventually have an end.
7:19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was
h diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose
teeth [were of] iron, and his nails [of] brass; [which]
devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the i residue with
(h) For the other three monarchies were governed by a king,
and the Roman empire by consuls: the Romans changed
their governors yearly, and the other monarchies
retained them for term of life: also the Romans were
the strongest of all the others, and were never at
peace among themselves.
(i) Read (Dan 7:7).
7:20 And of the ten horns that [were] in his head, and [of] the
other which came up, and before whom three fell; even [of]
that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great
things, whose k look [was] more stout than his fellows.
(k) This is meant of the fourth beast, which was more
terrible than the others.
7:21 I beheld, and the same l horn made war with the saints,
and prevailed against them;
(l) Meaning the Roman emperors, who were most cruel against
the Church of God, both of the Jews and of the
7:22 Until m the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given
to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the
saints possessed the kingdom.
(m) Until God showed his power in the person of Christ, and
by the preaching of the Gospel gave unto his own some
rest, and so obtained a famous name in the world, and
were called the Church of God, or the kingdom of God.
7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom [are] ten kings
[that] shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and
he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue n
(n) )Read Geneva "Dan 7:8")
7:25 And he shall speak [great] words against o the most High,
and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think
to p change times and laws: and they shall be given into
his hand until a q time and times and the dividing of
(o) That is, will make wicked decrees and proclamations
against God's word, and send throughout all their
dominion, to destroy all that did profess it.
(p) These emperors will not consider that they have their
power from God, but think it is in their own power to
change God's laws and man's, and as it were the order
of nature, as appears by Octavius, Tiberius, Calligula,
Nero, Domitianus, etc.
(q) God will allow them to rage in this way against his
saints for a long time, the time and times, but at
length he will soften these troubles, and shorten the
time for his elect's sake, (Mt 24:22), which is
here meant by the dividing of time.
7:26 But the r judgment shall sit, and they shall take away
his dominion, to consume and to destroy [it] unto the end.
(r) God by his power will restore things that were out of
order, and destroy this little horn in such a way that
it will never rise up again.
7:27 And the s kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the
kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the
people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom [is]
an everlasting kingdom, and all t dominions shall serve
and obey him.
(s) He shows why the beast would be destroyed, that is, so
that his Church might have rest and quietness, which
though they do not fully enjoy here, yet they have it
in hope, and by the preaching of the Gospel enjoy the
beginning of it, which is meant by these words, "under
the whole heaven". And therefore he speaks here of the
beginning of Christ's kingdom in this world, which
kingdom the faithful have by the participation that
they have with Christ their head.
(t) That is, some of every type that rule.
7:28 Hitherto [is] the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my
u cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance
changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart.
(u) Even though he had many motions in his heart which
moved him to and fro to seek out this matter curiously,
yet he was content with that which God revealed, and
kept it in memory, and wrote it for the use of the