1:1 Now there was a certain man of a Ramathaimzophim, of mount
Ephraim, and his name [was] Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the
son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an
The Argument - As God had ordained in (De 17:14), that when
the Israelites entered the land of Canaan, he would appoint
a king for them: so here in the first book of Samuel the
state of the people under their first king Saul is declared.
Not content with the order that God had temporarily
appointed for the government of his Church, they demanded a
king, so that they might be as other nations. As well they
thought they would be better off, not because they could
serve God better by it, but because they would be under the
safeguard of him who represented Jesus Christ the true
deliverer. Therefore God gave them a tyrant and a hypocrite
to rule over them, so that they might learn that a king is
not sufficient to defend them, unless God by his power
preserves and keeps them. Therefore he punishes the
ingratitude of his people, and sends them continual wars
both at home and abroad. Also, because Saul, whom God had
given to the honour of a king out of nothing, did not
acknowledge God's mercy to him, but rather disobeyed the
word of God and was not zealous of his glory, he was removed
from his estate by God, and David the true figure of Messiah
was placed in his stead. His patience, modesty, constancy,
persecution by open enemies, feigned friends, and deceitful
flatterers, is left to the Church and to every member of it,
as a pattern and example of their state and calling.
(a) There were two Ramatus, so that in this city in mount
Ephraim were Zophim, that is, the learned men and
1:3 And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and
to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in b Shiloh. And the
two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the
LORD, [were] there.
(b) For the ark was there at that time.
1:5 But unto Hannah he gave a worthy c portion; for he loved
Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.
(c) Some read, a portion with a hearty cheer.
1:8 Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest
thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart
grieved? [am] not I better to thee than ten d sons?
(d) Let this comfort you, that I love you no less than if
you had many children.
1:9 So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after
they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post
of the e temple of the LORD.
(e) That is of the house where the ark was.
1:18 And she said, Let thine handmaid find f grace in thy
sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her
countenance was no more [sad].
(f) That is, pray to the Lord for me.
1:19 And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped
before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to
Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD g
(g) According to her petition.
1:21 And the man h Elkanah, and all his house, went up to
offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.
(h) This Elkanah was a Levite, (1Ch 6:27), and as some
write once a year they were accustomed to appear before
the Lord with their families.
1:23 And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee
good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only the LORD
establish his i word. So the woman abode, and gave her
son suck until she weaned him.
(i) Because her prayer took effect, therefore it was called
the Lord's promise.
1:26 And she said, Oh my lord, [as] thy k soul liveth, my
lord, I [am] the woman that stood by thee here, praying
unto the LORD.
(k) That is, most certainly.
1:28 Therefore also I have lent him to the LORD; as long as he
liveth he shall be lent to the LORD. And he l worshipped
the LORD there.