10:1 Moreover, 1 brethren, I would not that ye should be
ignorant, how that all our a fathers were under the
cloud, and all passed through the sea;
(1) He sets out that which he said, laying before them an
example of the horrible judgment of God against those who
had in effect the very same pledges of the same adoption
and salvation that we have. And yet nonetheless when they
gave themselves to idol's feasts, they perished in the
wilderness, being horribly and manifoldly punished. Now,
moreover and besides that these things are fitly spoken
against those who frequented idol's feasts, the same also
seems to be alleged to this end and purpose, because many
men think that those things are not of such great weight
that God will be angry with them if they use them. And so
they frequent Christian assemblies and are baptized, and
receive the communion, and confess Christ.
(a) Paul says this in respect of the covenant, and not in
respect of the persons, except generally.
10:22 And were all b baptized unto c Moses in the cloud
and in the sea;
(2) In effect the ordinances of the old fathers were all one
with ours, for they respected Christ alone, who offered
himself to them in different forms.
(b) All of them were baptized with the outward sign, but
not indeed, because of which God cannot be blamed, but
(c) Moses being their guide.
10:3 And did all eat the d same spiritual e meat;
(d) The same that we do.
(e) Manna, which was a spiritual meat to the believers,
who in faith lay hold upon Christ, who is the true meat.
10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank
of that spiritual Rock that f followed them: and that
Rock was g Christ.
(f) Of the River and running Rock, who followed the people.
(g) Did signify Christ as an ordinance, so that together
with the sign, there was the thing signified, and the
truth itself. For God does not offer a bare sign, but
the thing signified by the sign together with it, which
is to be received with faith.
10:63 Now these things were our h examples, to the intent
we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
(3) An amplifying of the example against those who are carried
away with their lusts beyond the bounds which God has
measured out. For this is the beginning of all evil, as of
idolatry (which has gluttony as a companion), fornication,
rebelling against Christ, murmuring, and such like. And
these things God punished most sharply in that old people,
to the end that we who succeed them, and have a more full
declaration of the will of God, might by that means take
(h) Some read "figures": which signified our ordinances.
For circumcision was to the Jews a seal of righteousness,
to us a symbol of baptism, and so in the other ordinances.
10:9 Neither let us tempt i Christ, as some of them also
tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
(i) To tempt Christ is to provoke him to a combat as it
were, which those men do who abuse the knowledge that
he has given them, and make it to serve for a cloak for
their lusts and wickedness.
10:11 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and
they are written for our admonition, upon whom the k
ends of the world are come.
(k) This our age is called the end, for it is the
culmination of all the ages.
10:124 Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed
lest he fall.
(4) In conclusion he descends to the Corinthians themselves,
warning them that they do not please themselves, but rather
that they prevent the wiles of Satan. Yet he uses an
declaration and comforts them, that he may not seem to make
them altogether similar to those wicked idolaters and
condemners of Christ, who perished in the wilderness.
10:13 There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common
to l man: but God [is] faithful, who will not suffer you
to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the
temptation also m make a way to escape, that ye may be
able to bear [it].
(l) Which comes from weakness.
(m) He that would have you tempted for your profit's sake,
will make a way for you to escape out of the
10:155 I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.
(5) Now returning to those idol's feasts, that he may not seem
to delay at all: first he promises that he will use no
other reasons, than such as they knew very well themselves.
He gives the following line of reasoning. The holy
banquets of the Christians are pledges, first of all, of
the community that they have with Christ, and next, one
with another. The Israelites also do ratify in the
sacrifices, their mutual union in the very same religion.
Therefore so do the idolaters also join themselves with
their idols, or demons rather (for idols are nothing) in
those solemn banquets, whereupon it follows, that that
table is a table of demons, and therefore you must avoid
it. For you cannot be partakers of the Lord and of idols
together, much less may such banquets be considered as
indifferent things. Will you then strive with God? And if
you do, do you think that you will get the upper hand?
10:16 The cup of n blessing which we bless, is it not the o
communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we
break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
(n) Of thanksgiving: whereupon, that holy banquet was
called "eucharist", which is Greek for thanksgiving.
(o) A most effectual pledge and note of your joining
together with Christ, and ingrafting to him.
10:18 Behold Israel after the p flesh: are not they which eat
of the sacrifices q partakers of the altar?
(p) That is, those who yet observe their ceremonies.
(q) Are consenting and guilty, both of that worship and
10:20 But I [say], that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice,
they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not
that ye should have r fellowship with devils.
(r) Have anything to do with the demons, or enter into
that society which is begun in the demon's name.
10:21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the s cup of
devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of
the table of devils.
(s) The heathen and profane people were accustomed to
finish up and make an end of their feasts which they
kept to the honour of their gods, in offering meat
offerings and drink offerings to them, with banquets
10:236t All things are lawful for me, but all things are
not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all
things edify not.
(6) Coming to another type of things offered to idols, he
repeats that general rule, that in the use of indifferent
things we ought to have consideration not of ourselves
only, but of our neighbours. And therefore there are many
things which of themselves are lawful, which may be evil
when done by us, because of offence to our neighbour.
(t) See before in (1Co 6:13).
10:257 Whatsoever is sold in the u shambles, [that] eat,
asking no question for conscience sake:
(7) An applying of the rule to the present matter: whatever is
sold in the market, you may indifferently buy it as if it
were from the Lord's hand, and eat it either at home with
the faithful, or being called home to the unfaithful, that
is, in a private banquet. But yet with this exception,
unless any man is present who is weak, whose conscience may
be offended by setting meats offered to idols before them:
for then you ought to have a consideration of their
(u) The flesh that was sacrificed used to be sold in the
markets, and the price returned to the priests.
10:26 For the earth [is] the Lord's, and the x fulness
(x) All those things of which it is full.
10:29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: 8
for why is my liberty judged of another [man's]
(8) A reason: for we must take heed that our liberty is not
spoken of as evil, and that the benefit of God which we
ought to use with thanksgiving is not changed into impiety.
And this is through our fault, if we choose rather to
offend the conscience of the weak, than to yield a little
of our liberty in a matter of no importance, and so give
occasion to the weak to judge in such sort of us, and of
Christian liberty. And the apostle takes these things upon
his own person, that the Corinthians may have so much the
less occasion to oppose anything against him.
10:30 For if I by y grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken
of for that for which I give thanks?
(y) If I may through God's grace eat this meat or that
meat, why should I through my fault cause that benefit
of God to turn to my blame?
10:319 Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye
do, do all to the glory of God.
(9) The conclusion: we must order ourselves in such a way that
we seek not ourselves, but God's glory, and so the
salvation of as many as we may. In which the apostle does
not thrust himself to the Corinthians (even his own flock)
as an example, except so that he calls them back to Christ,
to whom he himself has regard.