An Account of the Persecutions in Bohemia Under the Papacy
The Roman pontiffs having usurped a power over several churches
were particularly severe on the Bohemians, which occasioned them
to send two ministers and four lay-brothers to Rome, in the year
977, to obtain redress of the pope. After some delay, their request
was granted, and their grievances redressed. Two things in particular
they were permitted to do, viz., to have divine service performed
in their own language, and to give the cup to the laity in the
The disputes, however, soon broke out again, the succeeding popes
exerting their whole power to impose on the minds of the Bohemians;
and the latter, with great spirit, aiming to preserve their religious
In A.D. 1375, some zealous friends of the Gospel applied to Charles,
king of Bohemia, to call an ecumenical Council, for an inquiry
into the abuses that had crept into the Church, and to make a
full and thorough reformation. The king, not knowing how to proceed,
sent to the pope for directions how to act; but the pontiff was
so incensed at this affair that his only reply was, "Severely
punish those rash and profane heretics." The monarch, accordingly
banished every one who had been concerned in the application,
and, to oblige the pope, laid a great number of additional restraints
upon the religious liberties of the people.
The victims of persecution, however, were not so numerous in Bohemia,
until after the burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague. These
two eminent reformers were condemned and executed at the instigation
of the pope and his emissaries, as the reader will perceive by
the following short sketches of their lives.
Persecution of John Huss
John Huss was born at Hussenitz, a village in Bohemia, about the
year 1380. His parents gave him the best education their circumstances
would admit; and having acquired a tolerable knowledge of the
classics at a private school, he was removed to the university
of Prague, where he soon gave strong proofs of his mental powers,
and was remarkable for his diligence and application to study.
In 1398, Huss commenced bachelor of divinity, and was after successively
chosen pastor of the Church of Bethlehem, in Prague, and dean
and rector of the university. In these stations he discharged
his duties with great fidelity; and became, at length, so conspicuous
for his preaching, which was in conformity with the doctrines
of Wickliffe, that it was not likely he could long escape the
notice of the pope and his adherents, against whom he inveighed
with no small degree of asperity.
The English reformist, Wickliffe, had so kindled the light of
reformation, that it began to illumine the darkest corners of
popery and ignorance. His doctrines spread into Bohemia, and were
well received by great numbers of people, but by none so particularly
as John Huss, and his zealous friend and fellow martyr, Jerome
The archbishop of Prague, finding the reformists daily increasing,
issued a decree to suppress the further spreading of Wickliffe's
writings: but this had an effect quite different to what he expected,
for it stimulated the friends of those doctrines to greater zeal,
and almost the whole university united to propagate them.
Being strongly attached to the doctrines of Wickliffe, Huss opposed
the decree of the archbishop, who, however, at length, obtained
a bull from the pope, giving him commission to prevent the publishing
of Wickliffe's doctrines in his province. By virtue of this bull,
the archbishop condemned the writings of Wickliffe: he also proceeded
against four doctors, who had not delivered up the copies of that
divine, and prohibited them, notwithstanding their privileges,
to preach to any congregation. Dr. Huss, with some other members
of the university, protested against these proceedings, and entered
an appeal from the sentence of the archbishop.
The affair being made known to the pope, he granted a commission
to Cardinal Colonna, to cite John Huss to appear personally at
the court of Rome, to answer the accusations laid against him,
of preaching both errors and heresies. Dr. Huss desired to be
excused from a personal appearance, and was so greatly favored
in Bohemia, that King Winceslaus, the queen, the nobility, and
the university, desired the pope to dispense with such an appearance;
as also that he would not suffer the kingdom of Bohemia to lie
under the accusation of heresy, but permit them to preach the
Gospel with freedom in their places of worship.
Three proctors appeared for Dr. Huss before Cardinal Colonna.
They endeavored to excuse his absence, and said they were ready
to answer in his behalf. But the cardinal declared Huss contumacious,
and excommunicated him accordingly. The proctors appealed to the
pope, and appointed four cardinals to examine the process: these
commissioners confirmed the former sentence, and extended the
excommunication not only to Huss but to all his friends and followers.
From this unjust sentence Huss appealed to a future Council, but
without success; and, notwithstanding so severe a decree, and
an expulsion in consequence from his church in Prague, he retired
to Hussenitz, his native place, where he continued to promulgate
his new doctrine, both from the pulpit and with the pen.
The letters which he wrote at this time were very numerous; and
he compiled a treatise in which he maintained, that reading the
books of Protestants could not be absolutely forbidden. He wrote
in defence of Wickliffe's book on the Trinity; and boldly declared
against the vices of the pope, the cardinals, and clergy, of those
corrupt times. He wrote also many other books, all of which were
penned with a strength of argument that greatly facilitated the
spreading of his doctrines.
In the month of November, 1414, a general Council was assembled
at Constance, in Germany, in order, as was pretended, for the
sole purpose of determining a dispute then pending between three
persons who contended for the papacy; but the real motive was
to crush the progress of the Reformation.
John Huss was summoned to appear at this Council; and, to encourage
him, the emperor sent him a safe-conduct: the civilities, and
even reverence, which Huss met with on his journey were beyond
imagination. The streets, and sometimes the very roads, were lined
with people, whom respect, rather than curiosity, had brought
He was ushered into the town with great acclamations, and it may
be said that he passed through Germany in a kind of triumph. He
could not help expressing his surprise at the treatment he received:
"I thought (said he) I had been an outcast. I now see my
worst friends are in Bohemia."
As soon as Huss arrived at Constance, he immediately took logdings
in a remote part of the city. A short time after his arrival,
came one Stephen Paletz, who was employed by the clergy at Prague
to manage the intended prosecution against him. Paletz was afterwards
joined by Michael de Cassis, on the part of the court of Rome.
These two declared themselves his accusers, and drew up a set
of articles against him, which they presented to the pope and
the prelates of the Council.
When it was known that he was in the city he was immediately arrested,
and committed prisoner to a chamber in the palace. This violation
of common law and justice was particularly noticed by one of Huss's
friends, who urged the imperial safe-conduct; but the pope replied
he never granted any safe-conduct, nor was he bound by that of
While Huss was in confinement, the Council acted the part of inquisitors.
They condemned the doctrines of Wickliffe, and even ordered his
remains to be dug up and burned to ashes; which orders were strictly
complied with. In the meantime, the nobility of Bohemia and Poland
strongly interceded for Huss; and so far prevailed as to prevent
his being condemned unheard, which had been resolved on by the
commissioners appointed to try him.
When he was brought before the Council, the articles exhibited
against him were read: they were upwards of forty in number, and
chiefly extracted from his writings.
John Huss's answer was this: "I did appeal unto the pope;
who being dead, and the cause of my matter remaining undetermined,
I appealed likewise unto his successor John XXIII: before whom
when, by the space of two years, I could not be admitted by my
advocates to defend my cause, I appealed unto the high judge Christ."
When John Huss had spoken these words, it was demanded of him
whether he had received absolution of the pope or no? He answered,
"No." Then again, whether it was lawful for him to appeal
unto Christ or no? Whereunto John Huss answered: "Verily
I do affirm here before you all, that there is no more just or
effectual appeal, than that appeal which is made unto Christ,
forasmuch as the law doth determine, that to appeal is no other
thing than in a cause of grief or wrong done by an inferior judge,
to implore and require aid at a higher Judge's hand. Who is then
a higher Judge than Christ? Who, I say, can know or judge the
matter more justly, or with more equity? when in Him there is
found no deceit, neither can He be deceived; or, who can better
help the miserable and oppressed than He?" While John Huss,
with a devout and sober countenance, was speaking and pronouncing
those words, he was derided and mocked by all the whole Council.
These excellent sentences were esteemed as so many expressions
of treason, and tended to inflame his adversaries. Accordingly,
the bishops appointed by the Council stripped him of his priestly
garments, degraded him, put a paper miter on his head, on which
was painted devils, with this inscription, "A ringleader
of heretics." Which when he saw, he said: "My Lord Jesus
Christ, for my sake, did wear a crown of thorns; why should not
I then, for His sake, again wear this light crown, be it ever
so ignominious? Truly I will do it, and that willingly."
When it was set upon his head, the bishop said: "Now we commit
thy soul unto the devil." "But I," said John Huss,
lifting his eyes towards the heaven, "do commend into Thy
hands, O Lord Jesus Christ! my spirit which Thou has redeemed."
When the chain was put about him at the stake, he said, with a
smiling countenance, "My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with
a harder chain than this for my sake, and why then should I be
ashamed of this rusty one?"
When the fagots were piled up to his very neck, the duke of Bavaria
was so officious as to desire him to abjure. "No, (said Huss;)
I never preached any doctrine of an evil tendency; and what I
taught with my lips I now seal with my blood." He then said
to the executioner, "You are now going to burn a goose, (Huss
signifying goose in the Bohemian language:) but in a century you
will have a swan which you can neither roast nor boil." If
he were prophetic, he must have meant Martin Luther, who shone
about a hundred years after, and who had a swan for his arms.
The flames were now applied to the fagots, when our martyr sung
a hymn with so loud and cheerful a voice that he was heard through
all the cracklings of the combustibles, and the noise of the multitude.
At length his voice was interrupted by the severity of the flames,
which soon closed his existence.
Then, with great diligence, gathering the ashes together, they
cast them into the river Rhine, that the least remnant of that
man should not be left upon the earth, whose memory, notwithstanding,
cannot be abolished out of the minds of the godly, neither by
fire, neither by water, neither by any kind oof torment.
Persecution of Jerome of Prague
This reformer, who was the companion of Dr. Huss, and may be said
to be a co-martyr with him, was born at Prague, and educated in
that university, where he particularly distinguished himself for
his great abilities and learning. He likewise visited several
other learned seminaries in Europe, particularly the universities
of Paris, Heidelburg, Cologne and Oxford. At the latter place
he became acquainted with the works of Wickliffe, and being a
person of uncommon application, he translated many of them into
his native language, having, with great pains, made himself master
of the English tongue.
On his return to Prague, he professed himself an open favorer
of Wickliffe, and finding that his doctrines had made considerable
progress in Bohemia, and that Huss was the principal promoter
of them, he became an assistant to him in the great work of reformation.
On the fourth of April, 1415, Jerome arrived at Constance, about
three months before the death of Huss. He entered the town privately,
and consulting with some of the leaders of his party, whom he
found there, was easily convinced he could not be of any service
to his friends.
Finding that his arrival in Constance was publicly known, and
that the Council intended to seize him, he thought it most prudent
to retire. Accordingly, the next day he went to Iberling, an
imperial town, about a mile from Constance. From this place he
wrote to the emperor, and proposed his readiness to appear before
the Council, if he would give him a safe-conduct; but this was
refused. He then applied to the Council, but met with an answer
no less unfavorable than that from the emperor.
After this, he set out on his return to Bohemia. He had the precaution
to take with him a certificate, signed by several of the Bohemian
nobility, then at Constance, testifying that he had used all prudent
means in his power to procure a hearing.
Jerome, however, did not thus escape. He was seized at Hirsaw
by an officer belonging to the duke of Sultsbach, who, though
unauthorized so to act, made little doubt of obtaining thanks
from the Council for so acceptable a service.
The duke of Sultsbach, having Jerome now in his power, wrote to
the Council for directions how to proceed. The Council, after
expressing their obligations to the duke, desired him to send
the prisoner immediately to Constance. The elector palatine met
him on the way, and conducted him into the city, himself riding
on horseback, with a numerous retinue, who led Jerome in fetters
by a long chain; and immediately on his arrival he was committed
to a loathsome dungeon.
Jerome was treated nearly in the same manner as Huss had been,
only that he was much longer confined, and shifted from one prison
to another. At length, being brought before the Council, he desired
that he might plead his own cause, and exculpate himself: which
being refused him, he broke out into the following exclamation:
"What barbarity is this! For three hundred and forty days
have I been confined in a variety of prisons. There is not a misery,
there is not a want, that I have not experienced. To my enemies
you have allowed the fullest scope of accusation: to me you deny
the least opportunity of defence. Not an hour will you now indulge
me in preparing for my trial. You have swallowed the blackest
calumnies against me. You have represented me as a heretic, without
knowing my doctrine; as an enemy of the faith, before you knew
what faith I professed: as a persecutor of priests before you
could have an opportunity of understanding my sentiments on that
head. You are a General Council: in you center all this world
can communicate of gravity, wisdom, and sanctity: but still you
are men, and men are seducible by appearances. The higher your
character is for wisdom, the greater ought your care to be not
to deviate into folly. The cause I now plead is not my own cause:
it is the cause of men, it is the cause of Christians; it is a
cause which is to affect the rights of posterity, however the
experiment is to be made in my person."
This speech had not the least effect; Jerome was obliged to hear
the charge read, which was reduced under the following heads:
1. That he was a derider of the papal dignity. 2. An opposer of
the pope. 3. An enemy to the cardinals. 4. A persecutor of the
prelates. 5. A hater of the Christian religion.
The trial of Jerome was brought on the third day after his accusation
and witnesses were examined in support of the charge. The prisoner
was prepared for his defence, which appears almost incredible,
when we consider he had been three hundred and forty days shut
up in loathsome prisons, deprived of daylight, and almost starved
for want of common necessaries. But his spirit soared above these
disadvantages, under which a man less animated would have sunk;
nor was he more at a loss of quotations from the fathers and ancient
authors than if he had been furnished with the finest library.
The most bigoted of the assembly were unwilling he should be heard,
knowing what effect eloquence is apt to have on the minds of the
most prejudiced. At length, however, it was carried by the majority
that he should have liberty to proceed in his defence, which he
began in such an exalted strain of moving elocution that the heart
of obdurate zeal was seen to melt, and the mind of superstition
seemed to admit a ray of conviction. He made an admirable distinction
between evidence as resting upon facts, and as supported by malice
and calumny. He laid before the assembly the whole tenor of his
life and conduct. He observed that the greatest and most holy
men had been known to differ in points of speculation, with a
view to distinguish truth, not to keep it concealed. He expressed
a noble contempt of all his enemies, who would have induced him
to retract the cause of virtue and truth. He entered upon a high
encomium of Huss; and declared he was ready to follow him in the
glorious task of martyrdom. He then touched upon the most defensible
doctrines of Wickliffe; and concluded with observing that it was
far from his intention to advance anything against the state of
the Church of God; that it was only against the abuse of the clergy
he complained; and that he could not help saying, it was certainly
impious that the patrimony of the Church, which was originally
intended for the purpose of charity and universal benevolence,
should be prostituted to the pride of the eye, in feasts, foppish
vestments, and other reproaches to the name and profession of
The trial being over, Jerome received the same sentence that had
been passed upon his martyred countryman. In consequence of this,
he was, in the usual style of popish affectation, delivered over
to the civil power: but as he was a layman, he had not to undergo
the ceremony of degradation. They had prepared a cap of paper
painted with red devils, which being put upon his head, he said,
"Our Lord Jesus Christ, when He suffered death for me a most
miserable sinner, did wear a crown of thorns upon His head, and
for His sake will I wear this cap."
Two days were allowed him in hopes that he would recant; in which
time the cardinal of Florence used his utmost endeavors to bring
him over. But they all proved ineffectual. Jerome was resolved
to seal the doctrine with his blood; and he suffered death with
the most distinguished magnanimity.
In going to the place of execution he sang several hymns, and
when he came to the spot, which was the same where Huss had been
burnt, he knelt down, and prayed fervently. He embraced the stake
with great cheerfulness, and when they went behind him to set
fire to the fagots, he said, "Come here, and kindle it before
my eyes; for if I had been afraid of it, I had not come to this
place." The fire being kindled, he sang a hymn, but was soon
interrupted by the flames; and the last words he was heard to
say these, "This soul in flames I offer Christ, to Thee."
The elegant Pogge, a learned gentleman of Florence, secretary
to two popes, and a zealous but liberal Catholic, in a letter
to Leonard Arotin, bore ample testimony of the extraordinary powers
and virtues of Jerome whom he emphatically styles, A prodigious
Persecution of Zisca
The real name of this zealous servant of Christ was John de Trocznow,
that of Zisca is a Bohemian word, signifying one-eyed, as he had
lost an eye. He was a native of Bohemia, of a good family and
left the court of Winceslaus, to enter into the service of the
king of Poland against the Teutonic knights. Having obtained
a badge of honor and a purse of ducats for his gallantry, at the
close of the war, he returned to the court of Winceslaus, to whom
he boldly avowed the deep interest he took in the bloody affront
offered to his majesty's subjects at Constance in the affair of
Huss. Winceslaus lamented it was not in his power to revenge it;
and from this moment Zisca is said to have formed the idea of
asserting the religious liberties of his country. In the year
1418, the Council was dissolved, having done more mischief than
good, and in the summer of that year a general meeting was held
of the friends of religious reformation, at the castle of Wisgrade,
who, conducted by Zisca, repaired to the emperor with arms in
their hands, and offered to defend him against his enemies. The
king bid them use their arms properly, and this stroke of policy
first insured to Zisca the confidence of his party.
Winceslaus was succeeded by Sigismond, his brother, who rendered
himself odious to the reformers; and removed all such as were
obnoxious to his government. Zisca and his friends, upon this,
immediately flew to arms, declared war against the emperor and
the pope, and laid siege to Pilsen with 40,000 men. They soon
became masters of the fortress, and in a short time all the southwest
part of Bohemia submitted, which greatly increased the army of
the reformers. The latter having taken the pass of Muldaw, after
a severe conflict of five days and nights, the emperor became
alarmed, and withdrew his troops from the confines of Turkey,
to march them into Bohemia. At Berne in Moravia, he halted, and
sent despatches to treat of peace, as a preliminary to which Zisca
gave up Pilsen and all the fortresses he had taken. Sigismond
proceeding in a manner that clearly manifested he acted on the
Roman doctrine, that no faith was to be kept with heretics, and
treating some of the authors of the late disturbances with severity,
the alarm-bell of revolt was sounded from one end of Bohemia to
the other. Zisca took the castle of Prague by the power of money,
and on August 19, 1420, defeated the small army the emperor had
hastily got together to oppose him. He next took Ausea by assault,
and destroyed the town with a barbarity that disgraced the cause
in which he fought.
Winter approaching, Zisca fortified his camp on a strong hill
about forty miles from Prague, which he called Mount Tabor, whence
he surprised a body of horse at midnight, and made a thousand
men prisoners. Shortly after, the emperor obtained possession
of the strong fortress of Prague, by the same means Zisca had
before done: it was blockaded by the latter, and want began to
threaten the emperor, who saw the necessity of a retreat.
Determined to make a desperate effort, Sigismond attacked the
fortified camp of Zisca on Mount Tabor, and carried it with great
slaughter. Many other fortresses also fell, and Zisca withdrew
to a craggy hill, which he strongly fortified, and whence he so
annoyed the emperor in his approaches against the town of Prague,
that he found he must either abandon the siege or defeat his enemy.
The marquis of Misnia was deputed to effect this with a large
body of troops, but the event was fatal to the imperialists; they
were defeated, and the emperor having lost nearly one third of
his army, retreated from the siege of Prague, harassed in his
rear by the enemy.
In the spring of 1421, Zisca commenced the campaign, as before,
by destroying all the monasteries in his way. He laid siege to
the castle of Wisgrade, and the emperor coming to relieve it,
fell into a snare, was defeated with dreadful slaughter, and this
important fortress was taken. Our general had now leisure to attend
to the work of reformation, but he was much disgusted with the
gross ignorance and superstition of the Bohemian clergy, who rendered
themselves contemptible in the eyes of the whole army. When he
saw any symptoms of uneasiness in the camp, he would spread alarm
in order to divert them, and draw his men into action. In one
of these expeditions, he encamped before the town of Rubi, and
while pointing out the place for an assault, an arrow shot from
the wall struck him in the eye. At Prague it was extracted, but,
being barbed, it tore the eye out with it. A fever succeeded,
and his life was with difficulty preserved. He was now totally
blind, but still desirous of attending the army. The emperor,
having summoned the states of the empire to assist him, resolved,
with their assistance, to attack Zisca in the winter, when many
of his troops departed until the return of spring.
The confederate princes undertook the siege of Soisin, but at
the approach merely of the Bohemian general, they retreated. Sigismond
nevertheless advanced with his formidable army, consisting of
15,000 Hungarian horse and 25,000 infantry, well equipped for
a winter campaign. This army spread terror through all the east
of Bohemia. Wherever Sigismond marched, the magistrates laid their
keys at his feet, and were treated with severity or favor, according
to their merits in his cause. Zisca, however, with speedy marches,
approached, and the emperor resolved to try his fortune once more
with that invincible chief. On the thirteenth of January, 1422,
the two armies met on a spacious plain near Kremnitz. Zisca appeared
in the center of his front line, guarded, or rather conducted,
by a horseman on each side, armed with a pole-axe. His troops
having sung a hymn, with a determined coolness drew their swords,
and waited for a signal. When his officers had informed him that
the ranks were all well closed, he waved his sabre round his head,
which was the sign of battle.
This battle is described as a most awful sight. The extent of
the plain was one continued scene of disorder. The imperial army
fled towards the confines of Moravia, the Taborites, without intermission,
galling their rear. The river Igla, then frozen opposed their
flight. The enemy pressing furiously, many of the infantry and
in a manner the whole body of the cavalry, attempted the river.
The ice gave way, and not fewer than two thousand were swallowed
up in the water. Zisca now returned to Tabor, laden with all the
spoils and trophies which the most complete victory could give.
Zisca now began again to pay attention to the Reformation; he
forbid all the prayers for the dead, images, sacerdotal vestments,
fasts, and festivals. Priests were to be preferred according
to their merits, and no one to be persecuted for religious opinions.
In everything Zisca consulted the liberal minded, and did nothing
without general concurrence. An alarming disagreement now arose
at Prague between the magistrates who were Calixtans, or receivers
of the Sacraments in both kinds, and the Taborites, nine of the
chiefs of whom were privately arraigned, and put to death. The
populace, enraged, sacrificed the magistrates, and the affair
terminated without any particular consequence. The Calixtans
having sunk into contempt, Zisca was solicited to assume the crown
of Bohemia; but this he nobly refused, and prepared for the next
campaign, in which Sigismond resolved to make his last effort.
While the marquis of Misnia penetrated into Upper Saxony, the
emperor proposed to enter Moravia, on the side of Hungary. Before
the marquis had taken the field, Zisca sat down before the strong
town of Aussig, situated on the Elbe. The marquis flew to its
relief with a superior army, and, after an obstinate engagement,
was totally defeated and Aussig capitulated. Zisca then went to
the assistance of Procop, a young general whom he had appointed
to keep Sigismond in check, and whom he compelled to abandon the
siege of Pernitz, after laying eight weeks before it.
Zisca, willing to give his troops some respite from fatigue, now
entered Prague, hoping his presence would quell any uneasiness
that might remain after the late disturbance: but he was suddenly
attacked by the people; and he and his troop having beaten off
the citizens, effected a retreat to his army, whom he acquainted
with the treacherous conduct of the Calixtans. Every effort of
address was necessary to appease their vengeful animosity, and
at night, in a private interview between Roquesan, an ecclesiastic
of great eminence in Prague, and Zisca, the latter became reconciled,
and the intended hostilities were done away.
Mutually tired of the war, Sigismond sent to Zisca, requesting
him to sheath his sword, and name his conditions. A place of congress
being appointed, Zisca, with his chief officers, set out to meet
the emperor. Compelled to pass through a part of the country where
the plague raged, he was seized with it at the castle of Briscaw,
and departed this life, October 6, 1424. Like Moses, he died in
view of the completion of his labors, and was buried in the great
Church of Czaslow, in Bohemia, where a monument is erected to
his memory, with this inscription on it-"Here lies John Zisca,
who, having defended his country against the encroachments of
papal tyranny, rests in this hallowed place, in despite of the
After the death of Zisca, Procop was defeated, and fell with the
liberties of his country.
After the death of Huss and Jerome, the pope, in conjunction with
the Council of Constance, ordered the Roman clergy everywhere
to excommunicate such as adopted their opinions, or commiserated
These orders occasioned great contentions between the papists
and reformed Bohemians, which was the cause of a violent persecution
against the latter. At Prague, the persecution was extremely severe,
until, at length, the reformed being driven to desperation, armed
themselves, attacked the senate-house, and threw twelve senators,
with the speaker, out of the senate-house windows, whose bodies
fell upon spears, which were held up by others of the reformed
in the street, to receive them.
Being informed of these proceedings, the pope came to Florence,
and publicly excommunicated the reformed Bohemians, exciting the
emperor of Germany, and all kings, princes, dukes, etc., to take
up arms, in order to extirpate the whole race; and promising,
by way of encouragement, full remission of all sins whatever,
to the most wicked person, if he did but kill one Bohemian Protestant.
This occasioned a bloody war; for several popish princes undertook
the extirpation, or at least expulsion, of the proscribed people;
and the Bohemians, arming themselves, prepared to repel force
by force, in the most vigorous and effectual manner. The popish
army prevailing against the Protestant forces at the battle of
Cuttenburgh, the prisoners of the reformed were taken to three
deep mines near that town, and several hundreds were cruelly thrown
into each, where they miserably perished.
A merchant of Prague, going to Breslau, in Silesia, happened to
lodge in the same inn with several priests. Entering into conversation
upon the subject of religious controversy, he passed many encomiums
upon the martyred John Huss, and his doctrines. The priests taking
umbrage at this, laid an information against him the next morning,
and he was committed to prison as a heretic. Many endeavors were
used to persuade him to embrace the Roman Catholic faith, but
he remained steadfast to the pure doctrines of the reformed Church.
Soon after his imprisonment, a student of the university was committed
to the same jail; when, being permitted to converse with the merchant,
they mutually comforted each other. On the day appointed for execution,
when the jailer began to fasten ropes to their feet, by which
they were to be dragged through the streets, the student appeared
quite terrified, and offered to abjure his faith, and turn Roman
Catholic if he might be saved. The offer was accepted, his abjuration
was taken by a priest, and he was set at liberty. A priest applying
to the merchant to follow the example of the student, he nobly
said, "Lose no time in hopes of my recantation, your expectations
will be vain; I sincerely pity that poor wretch, who has miserably
sacrificed his soul for a few more uncertain years of a troublesome
life; and, so far from having the least idea of following his
example, I glory in the very thoughts of dying for the sake of
Christ." On hearing these words, the priest ordered the executioner
to proceed, and the merchant being drawn through the city was
brought to the place of execution, and there burnt.
Pichel, a bigoted popish magistrate, apprehended twenty-four Protestants,
among whom was his daughter's husband. As they all owned they
were of the reformed religion, he indiscriminately condemned them
to be drowned in the river Abbis. On the day appointed for the
execution, a great concourse of people attended, among whom was
Pichel's daughter. This worthy wife threw herself at her father's
feet, bedewed them with tears, and in the most pathetic manner,
implored him to commisserate her sorrow, and pardon her husband.
The obdurate magistrate sternly replied, "Intercede not for
him, child, he is a heretic, a vile heretic." To which she
nobly answered, "Whatever his faults may be, or however his
opinions may differ from yours, he is still my husband, a name
which, at a time like this, should alone employ my whole consideration."
Pichel flew into a violent passion and said, "You are mad!
cannot you, after the death of this, have a much worthier husband?"
"No, sir, (replied she) my affections are fixed upon this,
and death itself shall not dissolve my marriage vow." Pichel,
however, continued inflexible, and ordered the prisoners to be
tied with their hands and feet behind them, and in that manner
be thrown into the river. As soon as this was put into execution,
the young lady watched her opportunity, leaped into the waves,
and embracing the body of her husband, both sank together into
one watery grave. An uncommon instance of conjugal love in a wife,
and of an inviolable attachment to, and personal affection for,
The emperor Ferdinand, whose hatred to the Bohemian Protestants
was without bounds, not thinking he had sufficiently oppressed
them, instituted a high court of reformers, upon the plan of the
Inquisition, with this difference, that the reformers were to
remove from place to place, and always to be attended by a body
These reformers consisted chiefly of Jesuits, and from their decision,
there was no appeal, by which it may be easily conjectured, that
it was a dreadful tribunal indeed.
This bloody court, attended by a body of troops, made the tour
of Bohemia, in which they seldom examined or saw a prisoner, suffering
the soldiers to murder the Protestants as they pleased, and then
to make a report of the matter to them afterward.
The first victim of their cruelty was an aged minister, whom they
killed as he lay sick in his bed; the next day they robbed and
murdered another, and soon after shot a third, as he was preaching
in his pulpit.
A nobleman and clergyman, who resided in a Protestant village,
hearing of the approach of the high court of reformers and the
troops, fled from the place, and secreted themselves. The soldiers,
however, on their arrival, seized upon a schoolmaster, asked him
where the lord of that place and the minister were concealed,
and where they had hidden their treasures. The schoolmaster replied
that he could not answer either of the questions. They then stripped
him naked, bound him with cords, and beat him most unmercifully
with cudgels. This cruelty not extorting any confession from
him, they scorched him in various parts of his body; when, to
gain a respite from his torments, he promised to show them where
the treasures were hid. The soldiers gave ear to this with pleasure,
and the schoolmaster led them to a ditch full of stones, saying,
"Beneath these stones are the treasures ye seek for."
Eager after money, they went to work, and soon removed those stones,
but not finding what they sought after, they beat the schoolmaster
to death, buried him in the ditch, and covered him with the very
stones he had made them remove.
Some of the soldiers ravished the daughters of a worthy Protestant
before his face, and then tortured him to death. A minister and
his wife they tied back to back and burnt. Another minister they
hung upon a cross beam, and making a fire under him, broiled him
to death. A gentleman they hacked into small pieces, and they
filled a young man's mouth with gunpowder, and setting fire to
it, blew his head to pieces.
As their principal rage was directed against the clergy, they
took a pious Protestant minister, and tormenting him daily for
a month together, in the following manner, making their cruelty
regular, systematic, and progressive.
They placed him amidst them, and made him the subject of their
derision and mockery, during a whole day's entertainment, trying
to exhaust his patience, but in vain, for he bore the whole with
true Christian fortitude. They spit in his face, pulled his nose,
and pinched him in most parts of his body. He was hunted like
a wild beast, until ready to expire with fatigue. They made him
run the gauntlet between two ranks of them, each striking him
with a twig. He was beat with their fists. He was beat with ropes.
They scourged him with wires. He was beat with cudgels. They tied
him up by the heels with his head downwards, until the blood started
out of his nose, mouth, etc. They hung him by the right arm until
it was dislocated, and then had it set again. The same was repeated
with his left arm. Burning papers dipped in oil were placed between
his fingers and toes. His flesh was torn with red-hot pincers.
He was put to the rack. They pulled off the nails of his right
hand. The same repeated with his left hand. He was bastinadoed
on his feet. A slit was made in his right ear. The same repeated
on his left ear. His nose was slit. They whipped him through the
town upon an ass. They made several incisions in his flesh. They
pulled off the toe nails of his right foot. The same they repeated
with his left foot. He was tied up by the loins, and suspended
for a considerable time. The teeth of his upper jaw were pulled
out. The same was repeated with his lower jaw. Boiling lead was
poured upon his fingers. The same was repeated with his toes.
A knotted cord was twisted about his forehead in such a manner
as to force out his eyes.
During the whole of these horrid cruelties, particular care was
taken that his wounds should not mortify, and not to injure him
mortally until the last day, when the forcing out of his eyes
proved his death.
Innumerable were the other murders and depredations committed
by those unfeeling brutes, and shocking to humanity were the cruelties
which they inflicted on the poor Bohemian Protestants. The winter
being far advanced, however, the high court of reformers, with
their infernal band of military ruffians, thought proper to return
to Prague; but on their way, meeting with a Protestant pastor,
they could not resist the temptation of feasting their barbarous
eyes with a new kind of cruelty, which had just suggested itself
to the diabolical imagination of one of the soldiers. This was
to strip the minister naked, and alternately to cover him with
ice and burning coals. This novel mode of tormenting a fellow
creature was immediately put into practice, and the unhappy victim
expired beneath the torments, which seemed to delight his inhuman
A secret order was soon after issued by the emperor, for apprehending
all noblemen and gentlemen, who had been principally concerned
in supporting the Protestant cause, and in nominating Frederic
elector Palatine of the Rhine, to be king of Bohemia. These, to
the number of fifty, were apprehended in one night, and at one
hour, and brought from the places where they were taken, to the
castle of Prague, and the estates of those who were absent from
the kingdom were confiscated, themselves were made outlaws, and
their names fixed upon a gallows, as marks of public ignominy.
The high court of reformers then proceeded to try the fifty, who
had been apprehended, and two apostate Protestants were appointed
to examine them. These examinants asked a great number of unnecessary
and impertinent questions, which so exasperated one of the noblemen,
who was naturally of a warm temper, that he exclaimed, opening
his breast at the same time, "Cut here, search my heart,
you shall find nothing but the love of religion and liberty; those
were the motives for which I drew my sword, and for those I am
willing to suffer death."
As none of the prisoners would change their religion, or acknowledge
they had been in error, they were all pronounced guilty; but the
sentence was referred to the emperor. When that monarch had read
their names, and an account of the respective accusations against
them, he passed judgment on all, but in a different manner, as
his sentences were of four kinds, viz. death, banishment, imprisonment
for life, and imprisonment during pleasure.
Twenty being ordered for execution, were informed they might send
for Jesuits, monks, or friars, to prepare for the awful change
they were to undergo; but that no Protestants should be permitted
to come near them. This proposal they rejected, and strove all
they could to comfort and cheer each other upon the solemn occasion.
On the morning of the day appointed for the execution, a cannon
was fired as a signal to bring the prisoners from the castle to
the principal market place, in which scaffolds were erected, and
a body of troops were drawn up to attend the tragic scene.
The prisoners left the castle with as much cheerfulness as if
they had been going to an agreeable entertainment, instead of
a violent death.
Exclusive of soldiers, Jesuits, priests, executioners, attendants,
etc., a prodigious concourse of people attended, to see the exit
of these devoted martyrs, who were executed in the following order.
Lord Schilik was about fifty years of age, and was possessed of
great natural and acquired abilities. When he was told he was
to be quartered, and his parts scattered in different places,
he smiled with great serenity, saying, "The loss of a sepulchre
is but a trifling consideration." A gentleman who stood by,
crying, "Courage, my lord!" he replied, "I have
God's favor, which is sufficient to inspire any one with courage:
the fear of death does not trouble me; formerly I have faced him
in fields of battle to oppose Antichrist; and now dare face him
on a scaffold, for the sake of Christ." Having said a short
prayer, he told the executioner he was ready. He cut off his right
hand and his head, and then quartered him. His hand and his head
were placed upon the high tower of Prague, and his quarters distributed
in different parts of the city.
Lord Viscount Winceslaus, who had attained the age of seventy
years, was equally respectable for learning, piety, and hospitality.
His temper was so remarkably patient that when his house was broken
open, his property seized, and his estates confiscated, he only
said, with great composure, "The Lord hath given, and the
Lord hath taken away." Being asked why he could engage in
so dangerous a cause as that of attempting to support the elector
Palatine Frederic against the power of the emperor, he replied,
"I acted strictly according to the dictates of my conscience,
and, to this day, deem him my king. I am now full of years, and
wish to lay down life, that I may not be a witness of the further
evils which are to attend my country. You have long thirsted for
my blood, take it, for God will be my avenger." Then approaching
the block, he stroked his long, grey beard, and said, "Venerable
hairs, the greater honor now attends ye, a crown of martyrdom
is your portion." Then laying down his head, it was severed
from his body at one stroke, and placed upon a pole in a conspicuous
part of the city.
Lord Harant was a man of good sense, great piety, and much experience
gained by travel, as he had visited the principal places in Europe,
Asia, and Africa. Hence he was free from national prejudices and
had collected much knowledge.
The accusations against this nobleman, were, his being a Protestant,
and having taken an oath of allegiance to Frederic, elector Palatine
of the Rhine, as king of Bohemia. When he came upon the scaffold
he said, "I have travelled through many countries, and traversed
various barbarous nations, yet never found so much cruelty as
at home. I have escaped innumerable perils both by sea and land,
and surmounted inconceivable difficulties, to suffer innocently
in my native place. My blood is likewise sought by those for whom
I, and my forefathers, have hazarded our estates; but, Almighty
God! forgive them, for they know not what they do." He then
went to the block, kneeled down, and exclaimed with great energy,
"Into Thy hands, O Lord! I commend my spirit; in Thee have
I always trusted; receive me, therefore, my blessed Redeemer."
The fatal stroke was then given, and a period put to the temporary
pains of this life.
Lord Frederic de Bile suffered as a Protestant, and a promoter
of the late war; he met his fate with serenity, and only said
he wished well to the friends whom he left behind, forgave the
enemies who caused his death, denied the authority of the emperor
in that country, acknowledged Frederic to be the only true king
of Bohemia, and hoped for salvation in the merits of his blessed
Lord Henry Otto, when he first came upon the scaffold, seemed
greatly confounded, and said, with some asperity, as if addressing
himself to the emperor, "Thou tyrant Ferdinand, your throne
is established in blood; but if you will kill my body, and disperse
my members, they shall still rise up in judgment against you."
He then was silent, and having walked about for some time, seemed
to recover his fortitude, and growing calm, said to a gentleman
who stood near, "I was, a few minutes since, greatly discomposed,
but now I feel my spirits revive; God be praised for affording
me such comfort; death no longer appears as the king of terrors,
but seems to invite me to participate of some unknown joys."
Kneeling before the block, he said, "Almighty God! to Thee
I commend my soul, receive it for the sake of Christ, and admit
it to the glory of Thy presence." The executioner put this
nobleman to considerable pain, by making several strokes before
he severed the head from the body.
The earl of Rugenia was distinguished for his superior abilities,
and unaffected piety. On the scaffold he said, "We who drew
our swords fought only to preserve the liberties of the people,
and to keep our consciences sacred: as we were overcome, I am
better pleased at the sentence of death, than if the emperor had
given me life; for I find that it pleases God to have his truth
defended, not by our swords, but by our blood." He then went
boldly to the block, saying, "I shall now be speedily with
Christ," and received the crown of martyrdom with great courage.
Sir Gaspar Kaplitz was eighty-six years of age. When he came to
the place of execution, he addressed the principal officer thus:
"Behold a miserable ancient man, who hath often entreated
God to take him out of this wicked world, but could not until
now obtain his desire, for God reserved me until these years to
be a spectacle to the world, and a sacrifice to himself; therefore
God's will be done." One of the officers told him, in consideration
of his great age, that if he would only ask pardon, he would immediately
receive it. "Ask pardon, (exclaimed he) I will ask pardon
of God, whom I have frequently offended; but not of the emperor,
to whom I never gave any offence; should I sue for pardon, it
might be justly suspected I had committed some crime for which
I deserved this condemnation. No, no, as I die innocent, and with
a clear conscience, I would not be separated from this noble company
of martyrs:" so saying, he cheerfully resigned his neck to
Procopius Dorzecki on the scaffold said, "We are now under
the emperor's judgment; but in time he shall be judged, and we
shall appear as witnesses against him." Then taking a gold
medal from his neck, which was struck when the elector Frederic
was crowned king of Bohemia, he presented it to one of the officers,
at the same time uttering these words, "As a dying man, I
request, if ever King Frederic is restored to the throne of Bohemia,
that you will give him this medal. Tell him, for his sake, I wore
it until death, and that now I willingly lay down my life for
God and my king." He then cheerfully laid down his head and
submitted to the fatal blow.
Dionysius Servius was brought up a Roman Catholic, but had embraced
the reformed religion for some years. When upon the scaffold the
Jesuits used their utmost endeavors to make him recant, and return
to his former faith, but he paid not the least attention to their
exhortations. Kneeling down he said, "They may destroy my
body, but cannot injure my soul, that I commend to my Redeemer";
and then patiently submitted to martyrdom, being at that time
fifty-six years of age.
Valentine Cockan, was a person of considerable fortune and eminence,
perfectly pious and honest, but of trifling abilities; yet his
imagination seemed to grow bright, and his faculties to improve
on death's approach, as if the impending danger refined the understanding.
Just before he was beheaded, he expressed himself with such eloquence,
energy, and precision as greatly amazed those who knew his former
deficiency in point of capacity.
Tobias Steffick was remarkable for his affability and serenity
He was perfectly resigned to his fate, and a few minutes before
his death spoke in this singular manner, "I have received,
during the whole course of my life, many favors from God; ought
I not therefore cheerfully to take one bitter cup, when He thinks
proper to present it? Or rather, ought I not to rejoice that it
is his will I should give up a corrupted life for that of immortality!"
Dr. Jessenius, an able student of physic, was accused of having
spoken disrespectful words of the emperor, of treason in swearing
allegiance to the elector Frederic, and of heresy in being a Protestant.
For the first accusation he had his tongue cut out; for the second
he was beheaded; and for the third, and last, he was quartered,
and the respective parts exposed on poles.
Christopher Chober, as soon as he stepped upon the scaffold said,
"I come in the name of God, to die for His glory; I have
fought the good fight, and finished my course; so, executioner,
do your office." The executioner obeyed, and he instantly
received the crown of martyrdom.
No person ever lived more respected or died more lamented than
John Shultis. The only words he spoke, before receiving the fatal
stroke, were, "The righteous seem to die in the eyes of fools,
but they only go to rest. Lord Jesus! Thou hast promised that
those who come to Thee shall not be cast off. Behold, I am come;
look on me, pity me, pardon my sins, and receive my soul."
Maximilian Hostialick was famed for his learning, piety, and humanity.
When he first came on the scaffold, he seemed exceedingly terrified
at the approach of death. The officer taking notice of his agitation,
Hostialick said, "Ah! sir, now the sins of my youth crowd
upon my mind, but I hope God will enlighten me, lest I sleep the
sleep of death and lest mine enemies say we have prevailed."
Soon after he said, "I hope my repentance is sincere, and
will be accepted, in which case the blood of Christ will wash
me from my crimes." He then told the officer he should repeat
the Song of Simeon; at the conclusion of which the executioner
might do his duty. He accordingly, said, "Lord, now lettest
Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word: For mine
eyes have seen Thy salvation;" at which words his head was
struck off at one blow.
When John Kutnaur came to the place of execution, a Jesuit said
to him, "Embrace the Roman Catholic faith, which alone can
save and arm you against the terrors of death." To which
he replied, "Your superstitious faith I abhor, it leads to
perdition, and I wish for no other arms against the terrors of
death than a good conscience." The Jesuit turned away, saying,
sarcastically, "The Protestants are impenetrable rocks."
"You are mistaken," said Kutnaur, "it is Christ
that is the Rock, and we are firmly fixed upon Him."
This person not being born independent, but having acquired a
fortune by a mechanical employment, was ordered to be hanged.
Just before he was turned off, he said, "I die, not for having
committed any crime, but for following the dictates of my own
conscience, and defending my country and religion."
Simeon Sussickey was father-in-law to Kutnaur, and like him, was
ordered to be executed on a gallows. He went cheerfully to death,
and appeared impatient to be executed, saying, "Every moment
delays me from entering into the Kingdom of Christ."
Nathaniel Wodnianskey was hanged for having supported the Protestant
cause, and the election of Frederic to the crown of Bohemia. At
the gallows, the Jesuits did all in their power to induce him
to renounce his faith. Finding their endeavors ineffectual, one
of them said, "If you will not adjure your heresy, at least
repent of your rebellion?" To which Wodnianskey replied,
"You take away our lives under a pretended charge of rebellion;
and, not content with that, seek to destroy our souls; glut yourselves
with blood, and be satisfied; but tamper not with our consciences."
Wodnianskey's own son then approached the gallows, and said to
his father, "Sir, if life should be offered to you on condition
of apostasy, I entreat you to remember Christ, and reject such
pernicious overtures." To this the father replied, "It
is very acceptable, my son, to be exhorted to constancy by you;
but suspect me not; rather endeavor to confirm in their faith
your brothers, sisters, and children, and teach them to imitate
that constancy of which I shall leave them an example." He
had so sooner concluded these words than he was turned off, receiving
the crown of martyrdom with great fortitude.
Winceslaus Gisbitzkey, during his whole confinement, had great
hopes of life given him, which made his friends fear for the safety
of his soul. He, however, continued steadfast in his faith, prayed
fervently at the gallows, and met his fate with singular resignation.
Martin Foster was an ancient cripple; the accusations against
whom were, being charitable to heretics, and lending money to
the elector Frederic. His great wealth, however, seemed to have
been his principal crime; and that he might be plundered of his
treasures was the occasion of his being ranked in this illustrious
list of martyrs.