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Chapter 8 in this respect is simple and clear; the last verses only give
room for a few remarks.
The sum of the doctrine we have been considering is, that we have a High
Priest who is seated on the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a
Minister of the heavenly sanctuary which is not made with hands. As such,
He must have an offering to present there. Jesus, were He on earth, would
not be a Priest; there were priests on earth according to the law, in which
all things were but figures of the heavenly things; as Moses was told to
make all according to the pattern that was shewn him in the mount. But the
ministry of Jesus is more excellent, because He is the Mediator of a better
covenant, spoken of in Jeremiah 31, which is here quoted; a clear and
simple proof that the first covenant was not to continue.
We again find here that particular development of the truth which was
called for by the character of the persons to whom this letter was
The first covenant was made with Israel; the second must be so likewise,
according to the prophecy of Jeremiah. The epistle however in this passage
only makes use of the fact that there was to be a second covenant, in order
to demonstrate that the first was to last no longer. It had grown old, and
was to vanish away. He recites the terms of the new covenant. We shall find
that he makes use of it afterwards. In that which follows, he contrasts the
services that belonged to the first with the perfect work on which
Christianity is founded. Thus the extent and the value of the work of
Christ are introduced.
Although there is no difficulty here, it is important to have light with
regard to these two covenants, because some have very vague ideas on this
point, and many souls, putting themselves under covenants, that is, in
relationship with God under conditions in which He has not placed them-lose
their simplicity, and do not hold fast grace and the fullness of the work
of Christ, and the position He has acquired for them in heaven.
A covenant is a principle of relationship with God on the earth-conditions
established by God under which man is to live with Him. The word may
perhaps be used figuratively, or by accommodation. It is applied to details
of the relationship of God with Israel, and so to Abraham (Gen.15), and
like cases; but, strictly speaking, there are but two covenants, in which
God has dealt with man on earth, or will-the old and the new. The old was
established at Sinai. The new covenant is made also with the two houses of
Israel.[see note #15]
The gospel is not a covenant, but the revelation of the salvation of God.
It proclaims the, great salvation of God. We enjoy indeed all the essential
privileges of the new covenant, its foundation being laid on God's part in
the blood of Christ, but we do so in spirit, not according to the letter.
The new covenant will be established formally with Israel in the
millennium. Meanwhile the old covenant is judged by the fact that there is
a new one.