1: Zephaniah - He is thought to have been the great - grandson of king Hezekiah. In the days of Josiah - So he was cotemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and foretells what Jeremiah and Ezekiel did.
4: The remnant - Whatsoever remains of the idolatry of Baal. This place - Jerusalem. The name - Both the persons, and the memory of them. The Chemarims - Either called so from their black garments they went in, or, from their swarthy colour occasioned by the black smoak of incense: they were door - keepers, and sextons of Baal. The priests - The priests of Baal.
5: House - tops - On the flat roofs of their houses. And that swear - That mixt idol - worship, and the worship of the true God; that devote themselves to God, and Baal, or Malchim, that is, Moloch.
7: Hold thy peace - Thou that murmurest against God, stand in awe. The day - A day of vengeance from the Lord. A sacrifice - The wicked Jews, whom he will sacrifice by the sword. His guests - summoned the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the air, to eat the flesh, and drink the blood.
8: The princes - The great ones, who dreamed of shifting better than others, but fell with the first, (2Ki 25:19-21). Children - Sons and grand - children, Josiah: Jehoahaz died a captive in Egypt, (2Ki 23:34), Jehoakim died in Babylon, and was buried with the burial of an ass, (Jer 22:18,19), Jeconiah died a captive: and Zedekiah and his children, fared still worse. Strange apparel - The garb of foreigners, imitated by the wanton Jews.
9: In the same day - At the same time. Their masters houses - Either the oppressing kings, whose officers these were, or publick officers and judges, whose servants thus spoiled the poor. Violence - Goods taken by force, by false accusations, or by suborned evidence.
10: The noise - The great out - cry and lamentation. The fish gate - At which gate the Babylonians first entered into the city. The second - This gate was in the second wall of Jerusalem, which on that side was fortified with three walls. Crashing - Of things broken into shivers; possibly the noise of doors, windows, closets, and chests broken up. The hills - On which the city stood.
11: Howl - Cry aloud, and bitterly. Maktesh - The lower town. Merchant people - Who were wont to lodge in this place. That bear silver - That brought it with them to pay for what they bought.
12: I will search - God speaks after the manner of men, who searches dark places with candles. He will fully discover and punish. Their lees - In allusion to liquors, which not being poured out from vessel to vessel to refine them, grow thick and foul.
14: The voice if the day - The day which will come with a great noise.
15: A day - Of unparalleled calamities.
17: Like blind men - Not knowing where to go. As dust - As abundantly, and as carelessly as dust in the highway.
18: In the land - Therefore let not sinners be laid asleep by the patience of God; for when the measure of their iniquity is full, his justice will both overtake and overcome them, will make quick and thorough work.
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