2: Bel - Bel and Merodach were the two principal idols of the Babylonians.
3: The north - From Media which lay northward to Babylon and Assyria.
4: In those days - In the days wherein God shall begin to execute judgment upon Babylon, (which was in the time of Cyrus) the children of Judah shall come out of captivity, and some of the children of Israel hearing that their brethren were gone out of Babylon, shall go up also from the several places into which they were disposed by the Assyrians: weeping for their sins, or for joy that God should shew them such mercy.
6: Their shepherds - Their civil and ecclesiastical governors have been a cause of it. The former by their wicked commands and example; the latter by example as well as doctrine. Turned them - To offer sacrifices unto idols. From mountain - From one idolatry to another. Forgotten - They have forgotten me.
7: Habitation - Some think this is a name here given to God, who indeed is the habitation of justice, but whether the Chaldeans would call him so, may be a question. Others therefore think the preposition in is understood, making this the aggravation of the Jews sins, that they were committed in a land which ought to have been an habitation of justice.
8: Remove - God commands his people to remove out of Babylon, and to go forth chearfully like the he - goats of a flock leading the way.
10: Satisfied - Satisfied with spoil and plunder.
11: Because - They rejoiced at the ruin of the Jews. Fat - The cause for which Babylon is threatened, was doubtless their luxury of all sorts commonly attending great wealth.
12: Mother - Your country, shall be ashamed of you, who are not able to defend her.
15: Given her hand - Acknowledging themselves overcome, and yielding. As she hath done - Unmerciful men find no mercy.
16: Every one - Either such strangers as for commerce had their abodes in Babylon, or such assistance as the Babylonians had gotten against their enemies.
17: Israel - The whole twelve tribes. Lions - Enemies cruel as lions had carried them into captivity.
20: Not found - God will no longer punish the sins of the Jews, they should be sought for as to punishment and not found. Reserve - Whom I save from the captivity of Babylon.
21: Merathaim - The names of some places which Cyrus took in his way to Babylon.
22: The land - Of Chaldea.
26: Open her store - houses - The granaries, or treasures of the Babylonians.
27: Bullocks - The great and rich men of Babylon.
28: The vengeance - The revenge which God had taken for his holy temple, which the Chaldeans had destroyed.
33: Together - Together in this place signifies no more than that they were both oppressed, or alike oppressed.
34: Plead - He will actually and readily effect it.
36: Dote - Their soothsayers and wizards shall dote, not foreseeing what will be. Dismayed - Their hearts shall fail them when this day comes.
37: Horses - Through they be full of chariots and horses, the enemy shall destroy them. Mingled people - People that were not native Chaldeans, but under their dominion.
38: Dried - This phrase has a plain reference to Cyrus's stratagem used in the surprize of Babylon; one part of it was fortified by the great river Euphrates, which Cyrus diverted by cutting several channels, 'till he had drained it so low, that it became passable for his army; others think that a want of rain is here threatened.
40: No man - Cyrus only made them tributaries, and took away their government. But Seleucus Nicanor, a Grecian prince, utterly destroyed Babylon, so that in the time of Adrian the Roman emperor, there was nothing left standing of that great city.
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