2: Ye - Inhabitants of Egypt.
3: A cloudy day - So times of trouble are called. Of the heathen - The time when God will reckon with the Heathens.
4: Ethiopia - The neighbour and ally to Egypt. Take away - Into miserable captivity. Her foundations - Their government, laws, and strong holds.
5: Lydia - Not the Asiatic, but the Africans placed between some part of Cyrene and Egypt. The mingled people - The hired soldiers from all parts, a confused mixture of nations. And Chub - The inhabitants of the inmost Libya; perhaps they may be the Nubians at this day. The men - All the allies of Egypt. With them - With the Egyptians.
6: Upheld - Those that favour and help her. The pride - The glory of all her strength.
7: They - All those before mentioned.
8: Destroyed - The fire that consumes nations is of God's kindling: and when he sets fire to a kingdom, all they that go about to quench the fire, shall be consumed by it.
9: Messengers - Such as having escaped the sword, shall tell the news. From me - By my permission and providence. In ship's - Messengers by ships might carry the news to both the Ethiopian, Asian, and African, by the Red - sea. As in the day - During the mighty havock made by the Chaldeans. It - A like storm.
11: His people - His own subjects, not hired soldiers.
12: The rivers dry - Probably the Chaldeans diverted them, and so their fortified towns wanted one great defence. Sell - Give it up entirely.
13: Noph - Memphis, now Grand Cairo, the chief city of the country. A prince - Either an Egyptian born, or independent, and over all Egypt. A fear - Consternation and cowardice.
14: In Zoan - Zoan shall be burnt down to ashes. In No - A great and populous city situate on one of the mouths of the Nile.
15: Sin - Pelusium, which was the key of Egypt, and therefore always well fortified, and strongly garrisoned.
16: Shall be rent - Her walls, and towers, and fortresses broken through by the violence of engines, and by the assaults of the soldiers.
17: Young men - 'Tis probable these might be a body of valiant youths, collected out of these ten cities. Aven - Bethshemesh, or Heliopolis, an idolatrous city, in which was a stately temple of the sun: an hundred and fifty furlongs, that is six miles and three quarters in compass. Phibeseth - Bubastus, sometimes called Hoephestus, not far from Aven.
18: Tehaphnehes - A great and goodly city of Egypt; Tachapanes, Tachpanes, Tahapanes, Tahpanes, Chanes, and Hanes, are names given it, and this from a queen of Egypt of that name in Solomon's time. It stood not far from Sin, or Pelusium. Darkened - A night shall come upon it. Break - I shall break the kingdom of Egypt, that it no more oppress with yokes, that is, burdens. Her daughters - Her towns and villages.
20: The eleventh year - Of Jeconiah's captivity, three months and two days before Jerusalem was taken, about the time that the Egyptians attempted to raise the siege of Jerusalem.
21: Have broken - Partly by the victory of the Chaldeans over Pharaoh - necho, partly by the victory of the Cyreneans over Pharaoh - hophra. The sword - None can heal the wounds that God gives but himself. They whom he disables, cannot again hold the sword.
22: His arms - Both his arms. The strong - That part of his kingdom which remains entire. Broken - That which was shattered before.
25: Will strengthen - As judges on the bench like Pilate, so generals in the field, like Nebuchadrezzar, have no power but what is given them from above.
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