SUMMARY.--The Fifth Trumpet.
The Fallen Star.
The Destroying Locusts.
The Five Months of Their Power.
The Sixth Trumpet.
The Four Angels at the Euphrates Loosed.
The Myriads of the Horsemen.
The Third Part of Men Killed.
The Rest of Mankind Repent Not.
It has already been seen that the trumpet angels are divided into two
groups. There remain the three who have been called the woe
angels, on account of the language applied to them in
It is manifest that the first four have completed their work, and that
the others are devoted to another and a distinct work, which shall be
the source of great woe to a part of the inhabitants of the earth. This
work must be at a later period, and hence must be after the year
1-6. I saw a star from heaven fallen. (Revision). John saw when
the trumpet sounded, not a star fall, but a star fallen to the earth. A
star is a symbol of a leader. A star fallen to the earth would 
indicate his degradation in some way.
To him was given the key of the bottomless pit. He was given
power to let out hellish influences on the earth.
2. There arose a smoke. From that source came forth some
influence, symbolized by smoke, which darkened the earth.
3. There came out of the smoke locusts. The destroying locusts
symbolize destroying armies. See
Nahum 3:15; Exod. 10:12.
Observe that they come out of the smoke. To the smoke their origin is
Unto them was given power. Power to hurt is implied, since they
are compared to scorpions.
4. They should not hurt the grass, etc. The locusts usually
devour every green thing. These, however, shall seek to preserve trees
Only the men. Their special hurt shall be directed against men
who are not sealed as God's own.
5. They should not kill them. This either implies that the
armies symbolized by the locusts should seek not to destroy the races
they attacked, or that they should not destroy the empire assailed.
Five months. Their torment should continue five months, or one
hundred and fifty prophetic days. Since a day is a symbol of a year,
this implies one hundred and fifty years.
Their torment was as the torment of a scorpion. Their warfare
and torment shall be almost intolerable.
6. Shall men seek death. So terrible will be the torment that
death will be desired.
7-11. And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared for
war. The appearance of the locusts is described. They represent
armies of horsemen.
Crowns like gold. There was an appearance like golden crowns. An
array of men wearing yellow turbans would have such an appearance.
Faces of men. Faces covered with beard. Roman soldiers wore no
beard, hence the beards would be a striking feature.
8. Hair as the hair of women. Wearing long, flowing hair. 
Teeth as the teeth of lions. This probably signifies
9. Breastplates as breastplates of iron. There was something
that seemed like an army clad in iron coats of mail.
The sound of their wings. They gave a sound like the rush of
chariots and horses rushing to battle.
10. And they had tails. They stung terribly, and left a string
in their path.
11. They had a king over them. The real king was not the star,
but the power of the bottomless pit.
Apollyon. The destroyer; either the devil or one of his
The locust, the horse, the horsemen, the scorpions, and indeed all the
symbols point to Arabia as the source from whence the locusts come. I
believe that there ought to be no reasonable doubt that the uprising of
the Mohammedan or Saracen power is meant. The Western Roman Empire had
fallen in A. D. 476. There yet existed the Eastern Roman Empire,
with Constantinople for a capital, called the Greek Empire. Against it
the Saracen effort was especially directed. Let us see how that
movement corresponded to the symbols: It was the right time,
after A. D. 476, and in the right place, directed against
the eastern part of the Old Roman world. Not only the facts just
mentioned, but the description of the men symbolized by the locusts,
point to Arabia. The locusts "were like unto horses prepared for
The Arabians, unlike the Goths, Vandals, and Huns, were an army of
horsemen, and moved over a country almost with the swiftness of the
locust. Let the reader note the following facts concerning the Arabs:
1. They came forth from the home of the locust. 2. They all fought on
horseback. There was not a foot-soldier in the armies which in
A. D. 632 assailed the Eastern Empire. 3. They wore upon their
heads something like crowns of gold. The historians often speak of them
as the "turbaned Arabs." Ezekiel
speaking of the Sabeans, which were an Arabian tribe, says, "The
Sabeans of the wilderness who put upon their heads beautiful crowns."
The yellow turbans of the Arab horsemen, at a little distance, would
strikingly resemble "crowns of gold."
4. The locusts had "the faces of men."
The Jews and Arabs wore long, patriarchal beards. The Roman and
northern races shaved the face. John notes that these locusts have the
distinguishing mark of manhood in the East,--the unshorn beard. 5. But
to the faces of men is added "the hair of women."
The female distinction is long hair, and evidently John beholds, as the
riders rush by, long hair flowing from their shoulders and streaming in
the air. Did the Arabs in the seventh century wear long hair? Pliny,
who was the contemporary of John, speaks (Nat. His. 7:28) of "the
turbaned Arabs with their uncut hair." Ammianus Marcellinus in the
fourth, and Jerome in the fifth century, each speak of the long-haired
Arabs. An Arabian poem, Antar, written in Mahomet's time, often
speaks of the hair of its heroes flowing down upon their shoulders. We
quote: "He adjusted himself, twisted his beard, and folded his hair
under his turban, drawing it up from his shoulders." 6. But the locust
had "breastplates of iron."
The historians of the Arabian wars constantly speak of the iron coats
of mail. Mohammed, in the Koran, says: "God has given you coats of mail
to defend you in your wars."
corroborations might be added. 1. Mohammed was literally a fallen
star. He was a prince by birth, the heir of the rule of Mecca, but
his grandfather and father dying while he was young, he was pushed
aside and became a servant. 2. The locusts came out of the
smoke. The Arabs were unknown as a conquering power before
Mohammed. The smoke of his imposture filled them with the fierce, stern
fanaticism of the Koran. 3. They had literal orders in their invasion
not to destroy vegetation. "Cut down no palm trees, nor burn fields
of corn. Destroy no fruit trees."--Gibbon, Vol. V., page
189. 4. Passing other marks, their destructive work was to continue
five months, or one hundred and fifty years. Though Mohammed's work
began earlier, it was in A. D. 632 that the Arab hosts bursts
forth from their deserts to assail the world. Within a hundred years
Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, the north of Africa, and Spain
had fallen beneath their sway. In 762, the capital of the Saracen
Empire was placed at Bagdad and their rulers began to cherish peaceful
ideas. In 781, the Caliph Haroun Al Rashid was their ruler. This is the
golden age of the Saracen power. This is the era of the Arabian
Nights. Bagdad was called the "City of Peace." How long is this from
the time when the torment that had stricken half the world began? In
A. D. 632, the Arabs assailed the nations, to which date one
hundred and fifty years may be added. This would bring us to 782, the
second year of Haroun Al Rashid's reign. Did the torment continue
longer? Nay. He was engaged in friendly correspondence with the
Christian rulers of Europe, 
and from this time the Saracens ceased their efforts to make the world
Mohammedan. Their aggressive wars were forever ended.
THE SIXTH TRUMPET.
13-15. The sixth angel sounded. A voice is then heard coming
from the golden altar of incense (see
He does not say who spoke, but declares the command uttered.
14. Loose the four angels which are bound at the great river
Euphrates. The four angels represent four agencies which had been
restrained and kept from advancing.
15. And the four angels were loosed. Whatever these angels
represent, they are no longer restrained. It is implied that there were
four agencies, or a fourfold division.
Prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year. The
used that for the regular solar year of 365 1-4 days, Julius
Cæsar having reformed the calendar. This would make 365 1-4,
plus 30, plus 1, plus 1-12, equal 396 1-3 days. Or, a day being a
symbol of a year, three hundred and ninety-six years and four
16-19. The number of the army of the horsemen. Countless armies
of horsemen are signified.
17. Having breastplates as of fire, and of hyacinth, and
brimstone. Or, bright red, blue and yellow. These are the colors
The heads of the horses. Strength and fierceness are implied.
Out of their mouths proceedeth fire and smoke and brimstone.
This is a destroying power. It might well describe the use of
gunpowder. One looking at a distance would see the flash of fire, and
the smoke, apparently coming from the horses' heads, would smell the
brimstone odor, and would see the destructive effect.
18. By these three plagues.
The fire, smoke and brimstone. These agencies slay
the third part of men. We have before found that the Old Roman
world was divided into three parts. One third part had been destroyed
by the first four trumpet invasions. A second third part was taken by
the Saracens. If now the third part was taken and destroyed by these
three plagues, the symbolism would be fulfilled.
We have found that the Arabian scourge had fulfilled its work by
A. D. 782. It had taken from the Eastern Empire its provinces in
Africa, and most of its possessions in Asia. The world, according to
Gibbon, was at this time divided into three parts. Two of these had
fallen before five destructive agencies. One still remains to be
destroyed by the angels bound at the river Euphrates.
A few years before the thousandth year of the Christian era, a fierce
Tartar race, formidable by 
numbers and bravery, left their seats east of the Caspian Sea, and
moved southwestward, until they rested upon the river Euphrates. A vast
region of country east of that river fell before their arms. Persia
became one of their provinces, and India, as far as the ocean, was
subjected to their sway. But for two generations they "were bound by
the river Euphrates"
and lying upon its eastern banks, their armies were restrained by the
river from ravaging the countries that lie to the west. For more than
half a century, in some mysterious way, they were restrained at that
river. At last, in the year 1057, sixty years after their appearance
upon the east bank of that stream, after being bound for two
generations, they crossed the Euphrates and marched upon the eastern
Roman Empire. This people were called the Turkomans or Turkmans; we
call them Turks.
There were four angels. This would imply, in some way, four
powers. It is remarkable that this people were divided into four
bodies, which formed four kingdoms, under the four grandsons of the
leader who established the empire of the Turks in western Asia. The
prince who was commissioned by the Caliph to attack the Greek Empire
was named Togrul, but dying, his son, Alp Arsian, led the Turks across
the Euphrates, and when he was slain in battle, he was succeeded by
Malek Shah. If the reader will open at 532d page of Gibbon, Vol. V., he
will find that the mighty empire of Malek Shah was divided into four
principalities, under his four sons, which are described by the
historian under the names of Persia, Kerman or India, Syria, Roum or
Asia Minor, extending from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the
Mediterranean. There are then four angels or messengers of
Observe the correspondence: (1) They were bound at the
Euphrates. (2) There were four commands. (3) Their armies
were horsemen, apparently countless. (4) They numbered their horsemen
by myriads instead of by thousands. Gibbon often speaks of the
myriads of horses. See Chap. LVII. (5) "The Ottomans until a very
recent period wore warlike apparel of scarlet, blue and yellow."
(6) The first time that gunpowder and firearms were employed in war was
in their campaigns. Constantinople was taken by cannon. See Gibbon,
Chap. LXVIII. I quote one passage: "The great cannon of Mahomet has
been separately noticed; an important and visible object in history of
the times; but that enormous engine was flanked by two fellows almost
of equal magnitude; the long order of the Turkish artillery was pointed
against the walls; fourteen batteries thundered at once on the most
accessible places; and of one of these it is ambiguously expressed,
that it was mounted with one hundred and thirty balls, or discharged
one hundred and thirty bullets." (7) There was power in the tails of
the horses. This is a singular statement. No less singular is the
fact that among the Turks the horse's tail is an emblem of power. The
number of horses' tails determines rank. A Pacha of three tails
is a great officer. The emblem of the rule of the Pachas, the most
wasteful, oppressive, unjust rule the world has ever seen, is the
TIME.--One point more must suffice. It has been
already shown that the prophetic period is three hundred and ninety-six
years and four months, and it must evidently begin at the time when the
angels were "loosed" in order to commence their work. It was in the
year 1057 that the Turkish armies crossed the river and assailed the
Empire. By the beginning of the next century their conquests extended
to the Hellespont, and embraced all that portion of the world now
portrayed upon the maps as Turkey in Asia. Then came the mighty
uprising of Europe in the Crusades, which for the time beat back the
torrent of Moslem invasion and recovered a portion of Asia. Between
Europe and Asia the contest continued for two centuries, when Europe,
weary of the fruitless struggle, abandoned the attempt, and the Turkish
Empire, re-organized with the Ottoman Turks in power, passed over into
Europe. The Eastern Empire was soon shorn of all its territories and
reduced to the city of Constantinople. In the year 1453, assailed by
two hundred thousand Turks, its walls battered down by the first cannon
ever used in a siege, one hundred thousand of its citizens lying dead
upon the ramparts, it was stormed by the Turks, and the last relic of
the mighty empire which had existed for two thousand two hundred years
was swept away forever. The work was done. The Empire fell in 1453.
In 1057 the work began by the passage of the Euphrates. The interval
between is three hundred and ninety-six years! 
This remarkable prophecy is still more exact. The reader cannot fail to
note particularly the language of the prophecy. We have found it to
mean exactly 396 years and four months. On January 28th, 1057,
according to Arabian historians, the Turks marched from Bagdad. 396
years and four months, or 120 days, would bring us to May 29th, 1453,
the very day of the fall of Constantinople, and of the final
overthrow of the Greek third part of the world.
20, 21. The rest . . . repented not. It is implied that these
woes were sent as judgments. The Christianity of the East overthrown by
the Saracens and Turks had become utterly corrupt. The rest,
that is, those in other countries not conquered by Turks, continued
That they should not worship devils. The worship of dead saints
is what is meant by demon worship in the Scriptures.
And the idols. Images had now been introduced into the churches
everywhere and were worshiped.
21. They repented not of their murders. In the Crusade against
the Albigenses, conducted by Rome in the thirteenth century, it is
estimated that one million martyrs perished.
Sorceries. Tricks to deceive, so characteristic of the priests.
Fornication. This term may mean spiritual fornication or
apostasy, and it may mean literal fornication. In either sense it is
true of the religious features of the fifteenth century.
Thefts. Thefts in resorting to deceptions and impostures to
extort money from the people. Tetzel's mission to Germany early in the
sixteenth century is an illustration. Instead of repentance after the
great judgment on the Eastern Church, the Western Church grew worse and
We have now followed the opening of the seals and the blowing of the
trumpets to the sixth trumpet under the seventh seal. These have been
followed in their order, then history has been consulted and, following
in chronological order, have been found great epochal events in history
which corresponded surprisingly to the symbolism of the visions. The
American Editor of Lange on Revelation says: "The writer must
acknowledge that, after a careful consideration of the principal views
that had been presented, he has been constrained to the conclusion that
the scheme of interpretation advocated by Elliot and Barnes
(Substantially that which have I have followed.--B.W.J.) is in most
respects correct. The points of resemblance between the symbols and the
events of history, especially as portrayed by the infidel Gibbon, are
too many, too striking and too exact, to allow the thought that they
are merely fortuitous. It would seem as though God had raised up the
great historian just mentioned to perform a work for the Bible and the
Church, which could not have been so effectively performed by a friend.
At times it seems as though he was writing history expressly to
elucidate prophecy."--Lange on Revelation, page 213.
I will add that I have consulted Lange, Düsterdieck, Meyer,
Elliott, Barnes, Alford, Prof. Wm. Milligan, Swedenborg, Archdeacon Lee,
and all the principal commentators on Revelation, and find no other
interpretation clear, consistent and complete. They are all more or